2,270 research outputs found

    Time-Dependent Magnons from First Principles

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    We propose an efficient and non-perturbative scheme to compute magnetic excitations for extended systems employing the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. Within our approach, we drive the system out of equilibrium using an ultrashort magnetic kick perpendicular to the ground-state magnetization of the material. The dynamical properties of the system are obtained by propagating the time-dependent Kohn–Sham equations in real time, and the analysis of the time-dependent magnetization reveals the transverse magnetic excitation spectrum of the magnet. We illustrate the performance of the method by computing the magnetization dynamics, obtained from a real-time propagation, for iron, cobalt, and nickel and compare them to known results obtained using the linear-response formulation of time-dependent density functional theory. Moreover, we point out that our time-dependent approach is not limited to the linear-response regime, and we present the first results for nonlinear magnetic excitations from first principles in iron

    Effect of spin-orbit coupling on the high harmonics from the topological Dirac semimetal Na<sub>3</sub>Bi

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    In this work, we performed extensive first-principles simulations of high-harmonic generation in the topological Diract semimetal Na3Bi using a first-principles time-dependent density functional theory framework, focusing on the effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the harmonic response. We also derived an analytical model describing the microscopic mechanism of strong-field dynamics in presence of spin-orbit coupling, starting from a locally U(1) × SU(2) gauge-invariant Hamiltonian. Our results reveal that SOC: (i) affects the strong-field excitation of carriers to the conduction bands by modifying the bandstructure of Na3Bi, (ii) makes each spin channel reacts differently to the driven laser by modifying the electron velocity (iii) changes the emission timing of the emitted harmonics. Moreover, we show that the SOC affects the harmonic emission by directly coupling the charge current to the spin currents, paving the way to the high-harmonic spectroscopy of spin currents in solids

    Radiation studies for GaAs in the ATLAS Inner Detector

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    We estimate the hardness factors and the equivalent 1 MeV neutron fluences for hadrons fluences expected at the GaAs positions wheels in the ATLAS Inner Detector. On this basis the degradation of the GaAs particle detectors made from different substrates as a function of years LHC operation is predicted.Comment: 11 pages, 6 Postscript figures, uses elsart.cls, submitted to Nucl. Inst. and Met

    Density-Matrix-Power Functional: Performance for Finite Systems and the Homogeneous Electron Gas

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    An exchange correlation energy functional involving fractional power of the one-body reduced density matrix [Phys. Rev. B {\bf 78}, 201103 (2008)] is applied to finite systems and to the homogeneous electron gas. The performance of the functional is assessed for the correlation and atomization energies of the molecules contained in the G2 set and for the correlation energy of the homogeneous electron gas. High accuracy is found for these two very different types of systems.Comment: 4 figures 4 page

    β-Lactam Monotherapy vs β-Lactam-Macrolide Combination Treatment in Moderately Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Randomized Noninferiority Trial.

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    IMPORTANCE: The clinical benefit of adding a macrolide to a β-lactam for empirical treatment of moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To test noninferiority of a β-lactam alone compared with a β-lactam and macrolide combination in moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Open-label, multicenter, noninferiority, randomized trial conducted from January 13, 2009, through January 31, 2013, in 580 immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized in 6 acute care hospitals in Switzerland for moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia. Follow-up extended to 90 days. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were treated with a β-lactam and a macrolide (combination arm) or with a β-lactam alone (monotherapy arm). Legionella pneumophila infection was systematically searched and treated by addition of a macrolide to the monotherapy arm. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Proportion of patients not reaching clinical stability (heart rate &lt;100/min, systolic blood pressure &gt;90 mm Hg, temperature &lt;38.0°C, respiratory rate &lt;24/min, and oxygen saturation &gt;90% on room air) at day 7. RESULTS: After 7 days of treatment, 120 of 291 patients (41.2%) in the monotherapy arm vs 97 of 289 (33.6%) in the combination arm had not reached clinical stability (7.6% difference, P = .07). The upper limit of the 1-sided 90% CI was 13.0%, exceeding the predefined noninferiority boundary of 8%. Patients infected with atypical pathogens (hazard ratio [HR], 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13-0.85) or with Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) category IV pneumonia (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.59-1.10) were less likely to reach clinical stability with monotherapy, whereas patients not infected with atypical pathogens (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.80-1.22) or with PSI category I to III pneumonia (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.82-1.36) had equivalent outcomes in the 2 arms. There were more 30-day readmissions in the monotherapy arm (7.9% vs 3.1%, P = .01). Mortality, intensive care unit admission, complications, length of stay, and recurrence of pneumonia within 90 days did not differ between the 2 arms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We did not find noninferiority of β-lactam monotherapy in patients hospitalized for moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia. Patients infected with atypical pathogens or with PSI category IV pneumonia had delayed clinical stability with monotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00818610

    Electron and hole states in quantum-dot quantum wells within a spherical 8-band model

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    In order to study heterostructures composed both of materials with strongly different parameters and of materials with narrow band gaps, we have developed an approach, which combines the spherical 8-band effective-mass Hamiltonian and the Burt's envelope function representation. Using this method, electron and hole states are calculated in CdS/HgS/CdS/H_2O and CdTe/HgTe/CdTe/H_2O quantum-dot quantum-well heterostructures. Radial components of the wave functions of the lowest S and P electron and hole states in typical quantum-dot quantum wells (QDQWs) are presented as a function of radius. The 6-band-hole components of the radial wave functions of an electron in the 8-band model have amplitudes comparable with the amplitude of the corresponding 2-band-electron component. This is a consequence of the coupling between the conduction and valence bands, which gives a strong nonparabolicity of the conduction band. At the same time, the 2-band-electron component of the radial wave functions of a hole in the 8-band model is small compared with the amplitudes of the corresponding 6-band-hole components. It is shown that in the CdS/HgS/CdS/H_2O QDQW holes in the lowest states are strongly localized in the well region (HgS). On the contrary, electrons in this QDQW and both electron and holes in the CdTe/HgTe/CdTe/H_2O QDQW are distributed through the entire dot. The importance of the developed theory for QDQWs is proven by the fact that in contrast to our rigorous 8-band model, there appear spurious states within the commonly used symmetrized 8-band model.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, E-mail addresses: [email protected], [email protected]

    Observation of confined current ribbon in JET plasmas

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    we report the identification of a localised current structure inside the JET plasma. It is a field aligned closed helical ribbon, carrying current in the same direction as the background current profile (co-current), rotating toroidally with the ion velocity (co-rotating). It appears to be located at a flat spot in the plasma pressure profile, at the top of the pedestal. The structure appears spontaneously in low density, high rotation plasmas, and can last up to 1.4 s, a time comparable to a local resistive time. It considerably delays the appearance of the first ELM.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figure