527 research outputs found

    Light-Induced Metastable Magnetic Texture Uncovered by in situ Lorentz Microscopy

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    Magnetic topological defects, such as vortices and Skyrmions, can be stabilized as equilibrium structures in nanoscale geometries and by tailored intrinsic magnetic interactions. Here, employing rapid quench conditions, we report the observation of a light-induced metastable magnetic texture, which consists of a dense nanoscale network of vortices and antivortices. Our results demonstrate the emergence of ordering mechanisms in quenched optically driven systems, which may give a general access to novel magnetic structures on nanometer length scales

    Energy Analysis, Baselining and Modeling of Prairie View A&M University

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    The thermal metering installations in 29 buildings were inspected. They were generally found to be in good condition, with a flow meter and the two required temperature sensors installed in the hot water and chilled water lines. However, in 14 of the installations, it was observed that either the hot water flow meter or the chilled water flow meter was located so close to a bend, valve, or other obstruction in the line that substantial errors in the flow (and Btu) readings are likely. In five of the buildings, both the hot water and chilled water flow meters were located too close to obstructions. Only 10 buildings had both flow meters placed properly. Temperature sensors were generally placed properly, although it was not possible to locate five (of 58) sensors to verify proper placement, and two others were located in the air handler piping rather than in the main building chilled and hot water lines.Analysis of the available data found that electricity savings in the J.B. Coleman Library for June - September, 1998 were 298 MWh, or 38% of the baseline consumption during these months. Extrapolation of these savings to a full year leads would result in savings of 894 MWh/year. This would result in annual electricity cost savings of 42,500attheaveragecostof42,500 at the average cost of 0.0475/kWh which was paid by the University for the period October, 1997 - September, 1998. Smaller savings were expected in chilled water, but were not evident in the data available. Likewise, no significant increase in hot water use was observed during the June - September period analyzed

    High optode-density wearable diffuse optical probe for monitoring paced breathing hemodynamics in breast tissue

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    Significance: Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) provides in vivo quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin ([Formula: see text] and HHb, respectively). These parameters have been shown to be useful for predicting neoadjuvant treatment response in breast cancer patients. However, most DOI devices designed for the breast are nonportable, making frequent longitudinal monitoring during treatment a challenge. Furthermore, hemodynamics related to the respiratory cycle are currently unexplored in the breast and may have prognostic value. Aim: To design, fabricate, and validate a high optode-density wearable continuous wave diffuse optical probe for the monitoring of breathing hemodynamics in breast tissue. Approach: The probe has a rigid-flex design with 16 dual-wavelength sources and 16 detectors. Performance was characterized on tissue-simulating phantoms, and validation was performed through flow phantom and cuff occlusion measurements. The breasts of [Formula: see text] healthy volunteers were measured while performing a breathing protocol. Results: The probe has 512 unique source–detector (S-D) pairs that span S-D separations of 10 to 54 mm. It exhibited good performance characteristics: [Formula: see text] drift of 0.34%/h, [Formula: see text] precision of 0.063%, and mean [Formula: see text] up to 41 mm S-D separation. Absorption contrast was detected in flow phantoms at depths exceeding 28 mm. A cuff occlusion measurement confirmed the ability of the probe to track expected hemodynamics in vivo. Breast measurements on healthy volunteers during paced breathing revealed median signal-to-motion artifact ratios ranging from 8.1 to 8.7 dB. Median [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] amplitudes ranged from 0.39 to [Formula: see text] and 0.08 to [Formula: see text] , respectively. Median oxygen saturations at the respiratory rate ranged from 82% to 87%. Conclusions: A wearable diffuse optical probe has been designed and fabricated for the measurement of breast tissue hemodynamics. This device is capable of quantifying breathing-related hemodynamics in healthy breast tissue

    Towards real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance guided transarterial CoreValve implantation: in vivo evaluation in swine

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance (rtCMR) is considered attractive for guiding TAVI. Owing to an unlimited scan plane orientation and an unsurpassed soft-tissue contrast with simultaneous device visualization, rtCMR is presumed to allow safe device navigation and to offer optimal orientation for precise axial positioning. We sought to evaluate the preclinical feasibility of rtCMR-guided transarterial aortic valve implatation (TAVI) using the nitinol-based Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>rtCMR-guided transfemoral (n = 2) and transsubclavian (n = 6) TAVI was performed in 8 swine using the original CoreValve prosthesis and a modified, CMR-compatible delivery catheter without ferromagnetic components.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>rtCMR using TrueFISP sequences provided reliable imaging guidance during TAVI, which was successful in 6 swine. One transfemoral attempt failed due to unsuccessful aortic arch passage and one pericardial tamponade with subsequent death occurred as a result of ventricular perforation by the device tip due to an operating error, this complication being detected without delay by rtCMR. rtCMR allowed for a detailed, simultaneous visualization of the delivery system with the mounted stent-valve and the surrounding anatomy, resulting in improved visualization during navigation through the vasculature, passage of the aortic valve, and during placement and deployment of the stent-valve. Post-interventional success could be confirmed using ECG-triggered time-resolved cine-TrueFISP and flow-sensitive phase-contrast sequences. Intended valve position was confirmed by ex-vivo histology.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our study shows that rtCMR-guided TAVI using the commercial CoreValve prosthesis in conjunction with a modified delivery system is feasible in swine, allowing improved procedural guidance including immediate detection of complications and direct functional assessment with reduction of radiation and omission of contrast media.</p

    Best practices for fNIRS publications

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    The application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the neurosciences has been expanding over the last 40 years. Today, it is addressing a wide range of applications within different populations and utilizes a great variety of experimental paradigms. With the rapid growth and the diversification of research methods, some inconsistencies are appearing in the way in which methods are presented, which can make the interpretation and replication of studies unnecessarily challenging. The Society for Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy has thus been motivated to organize a representative (but not exhaustive) group of leaders in the field to build a consensus on the best practices for describing the methods utilized in fNIRS studies. Our paper has been designed to provide guidelines to help enhance the reliability, repeatability, and traceability of reported fNIRS studies and encourage best practices throughout the community. A checklist is provided to guide authors in the preparation of their manuscripts and to assist reviewers when evaluating fNIRS papers

    Changes in Inflammatory Response after Endovascular Treatment for Type B Aortic Dissection

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    This present study aims to investigate the changes in the inflammatory markers after elective endovascular treatment of Type B aortic dissection with aneurysm, as related to different anatomical features of the dissection flap in the paravisceral perfusion. Consecutive patients with type B aortic dissections with elective endovascular stent graft repair were recruited and categorized into different groups. Serial plasma levels of cytokines (Interleukin-1β, -6, -8, -10, TNF-α), chemokines (MCP-1), and serum creatinine were monitored at pre-, peri- and post-operative stages. The length of stent graft employed in each surgery was retrieved and correlated with the change of all studied biochemical parameters. A control group of aortic dissected patients with conventional medication management was recruited for comparing the baseline biochemical parameters. In total, 22 endovascular treated and 16 aortic dissected patients with surveillance were recruited. The endovascular treated patients had comparable baseline levels as the non-surgical patients. There was no immediate or thirty day-mortality, and none of the surgical patients developed post-operative mesenteric ischaemia or clinically significant renal impairment. All surgical patients had detectable pro-inflammatory mediators, but none of the them showed any statistical significant surge in the peri-operative period except IL-1β and IL-6. Similar results were obtained when categorized into different groups. IL-1β and IL-6 showed maximal levels within hours of the endovascular procedure (range, 3.93 to 27.3 higher than baseline; p = 0.001), but returned to baseline 1 day post-operatively. The change of IL-1β and IL-6 at the stent graft deployment was statistically greater in longer stent graft (p>0.05). No significant changes were observed in the serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, elective endovascular repair of type B aortic dissection associated with insignificant changes in inflammatory mediators and creatinine. All levels fell toward basal levels post-operatively suggesting that thoracic endovascular aortic repair is rather less aggressive with insignificant inflammatory modulation

    New insights regarding the incidence, presentation and treatment options of aorto-oesophageal fistulation after thoracic endovascular aortic repair: the European Registry of Endovascular Aortic Repair Complications

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    OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence, clinical presentation, definite management and 1-year outcome in patients with aorto-oesophageal fistulation (AOF) following thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). METHODS: International multicentre registry (European Registry of Endovascular Aortic Repair Complications) between 2001 and 2011 with a total caseload of 2387 TEVAR procedures (17 centres). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients with a median age of 69 years (IQR 56-75), 25% females and 9 patients (19%) following previous aortic surgery were identified. The incidence of AOF in the entire cohort after TEVAR in the study period was 1.5%. The primary underlying aortic pathology for TEVAR was atherosclerotic aneurysm formation in 53% of patients and the median time to development of AOF was 90 days (IQR 30-150). Leading clinical symptoms were fever of unknown origin in 29 (81%), haematemesis in 19 (53%) and shock in 8 (22%) patients. Diagnosis could be confirmed via computed tomography in 92% of the cases with the leading sign of a new mediastinal mass in 28 (78%) patients. A conservative approach resulted in a 100% 1-year mortality, and 1-year survival for an oesophageal stenting-only approach was 17%. Survival after isolated oesophagectomy was 43%. The highest 1-year survival rate (46%) could be achieved via an aggressive treatment including radical oesophagectomy and aortic replacement [relative risk increase 1.73 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.92]. The survival advantage of this aggressive treatment modality could be confirmed in bootstrap analysis (95% CI 1.11-3.33). CONCLUSIONS: The development of AOF is a rare but lethal complication after TEVAR, being associated with the need for emergency TEVAR as well as mediastinal haematoma formation. The only durable and successful approach to cure the disease is radical oesophagectomy and extensive aortic reconstruction. These findings may serve as a decision-making tool for physicians treating these complex patients
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