134 research outputs found

    Molecular remodeling of ion channels, exchangers and pumps in atrial and ventricular myocytes in ischemic cardiomyopathy

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    Existing molecular knowledge base of cardiovascular diseases is rudimentary because of lack of specific attribution to cell type and function. The aim of this study was to investigate cell-specific molecular remodeling in human atrial and ventricular myocytes associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Our strategy combines two technological innovations, laser-capture microdissection of identified cardiac cells in selected anatomical regions of the heart and splice microarray of a narrow catalog of the functionally most important genes regulating ion homeostasis. We focused on expression of a principal family of genes coding for ion channels, exchangers and pumps (CE&P genes) that are involved in electrical, mechanical and signaling functions of the heart and constitute the most utilized drug targets. We found that (1) CE&P genes remodel in a cell-specific manner: ischemic cardiomyopathy affected 63 CE&P genes in ventricular myocytes and 12 essentially different genes in atrial myocytes. (2) Only few of the identified CE&P genes were previously linked to human cardiac disfunctions. (3) The ischemia-affected CE&P genes include nuclear chloride channels, adrenoceptors, cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, auxiliary subunits of Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) channels, and cell-surface CE&Ps. (4) In both atrial and ventricular myocytes ischemic cardiomyopathy reduced expression of CACNG7 and induced overexpression of FXYD1, the gene crucial for Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis. Thus, our cell-specific molecular profiling defined new landmarks for correct molecular modeling of ischemic cardiomyopathy and development of underlying targeted therapies

    mRNA Expression Levels in Failing Human Hearts Predict Cellular Electrophysiological Remodeling: A Population-Based Simulation Study

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    Differences in mRNA expression levels have been observed in failing versus non-failing human hearts for several membrane channel proteins and accessory subunits. These differences may play a causal role in electrophysiological changes observed in human heart failure and atrial fibrillation, such as action potential (AP) prolongation, increased AP triangulation, decreased intracellular calcium transient (CaT) magnitude and decreased CaT triangulation. Our goal is to investigate whether the information contained in mRNA measurements can be used to predict cardiac electrophysiological remodeling in heart failure using computational modeling. Using mRNA data recently obtained from failing and non-failing human hearts, we construct failing and non-failing cell populations incorporating natural variability and up/down regulation of channel conductivities. Six biomarkers are calculated for each cell in each population, at cycle lengths between 1500 ms and 300 ms. Regression analysis is performed to determine which ion channels drive biomarker variability in failing versus non-failing cardiomyocytes. Our models suggest that reported mRNA expression changes are consistent with AP prolongation, increased AP triangulation, increased CaT duration, decreased CaT triangulation and amplitude, and increased delay between AP and CaT upstrokes in the failing population. Regression analysis reveals that changes in AP biomarkers are driven primarily by reduction in IKr, and changes in CaT biomarkers are driven predominantly by reduction in ICaL and SERCA. In particular, the role of IICaL is pacing rate dependent. Additionally, alternans developed at fast pacing rates for both failing and non-failing cardiomyocytes, but the underlying mechanisms are different in control and heart failure. ┬ę 2013 Walmsley et al

    A comprehensive framework for evaluation of high pacing frequency and arrhythmic optical mapping signals

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    Introduction: High pacing frequency or irregular activity due to arrhythmia produces complex optical mapping signals and challenges for processing. The objective is to establish an automated activation time-based analytical framework applicable to optical mapping images of complex electrical behavior.Methods: Optical mapping signals with varying complexity from sheep (N = 7) ventricular preparations were examined. Windows of activation centered on each action potential upstroke were derived using Hilbert transform phase. Upstroke morphology was evaluated for potential multiple activation components and peaks of upstroke signal derivatives defined activation time. Spatially and temporally clustered activation time points were grouped in to wave fronts for individual processing. Each activation time point was evaluated for corresponding repolarization times. Each wave front was subsequently classified based on repetitive or non-repetitive events. Wave fronts were evaluated for activation time minima defining sites of wave front origin. A visualization tool was further developed to probe dynamically the ensemble activation sequence.Results: Our framework facilitated activation time mapping during complex dynamic events including transitions to rotor-like reentry and ventricular fibrillation. We showed that using fixed AT windows to extract AT maps can impair interpretation of the activation sequence. However, the phase windowing of action potential upstrokes enabled accurate recapitulation of repetitive behavior, providing spatially coherent activation patterns. We further demonstrate that grouping the spatio-temporal distribution of AT points in to coherent wave fronts, facilitated interpretation of isolated conduction events, such as conduction slowing, and to derive dynamic changes in repolarization properties. Focal origins precisely detected sites of stimulation origin and breakthrough for individual wave fronts. Furthermore, a visualization tool to dynamically probe activation time windows during reentry revealed a critical single static line of conduction slowing associated with the rotation core.Conclusion: This comprehensive analytical framework enables detailed quantitative assessment and visualization of complex electrical behavior

    Acetylcholine Reduces L-Type Calcium Current without Major Changes in Repolarization of Canine and Human Purkinje and Ventricular Tissue

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    Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) holds a strong basis as a potentially effective treatment modality for chronic heart failure, which explains why a multicenter VNS study in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is ongoing. However, more detailed information is required on the effect of acetylcholine (ACh) on repolarization in Purkinje and ventricular cardiac preparations to identify the advantages, risks, and underlying cellular mechanisms of VNS. Here, we studied the effect of ACh on the action potential (AP) of canine Purkinje fibers (PFs) and several human ventricular preparations. In addition, we characterized the effects of ACh on the L-type Ca2+ current (I-CaL) and AP of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) and performed computer simulations to explain the observed effects. Using microelectrode recordings, we found a small but significant AP prolongation in canine PFs. In the human myocardium, ACh slightly prolonged the AP in the midmyocardium but resulted in minor AP shortening in subepicardial tissue. Perforated patch-clamp experiments on hiPSC-CMs demonstrated that 5 mu M ACh caused an approximate to 15% decrease in I-CaL density without changes in gating properties. Using dynamic clamp, we found that under blocked K+ currents, 5 mu M ACh resulted in an approximate to 23% decrease in AP duration at 90% of repolarization in hiPSC-CMs. Computer simulations using the O'Hara-Rudy human ventricular cell model revealed that the overall effect of ACh on AP duration is a tight interplay between the ACh-induced reduction in I-CaL and ACh-induced changes in K+ currents. In conclusion, ACh results in minor changes in AP repolarization and duration of canine PFs and human ventricular myocardium due to the concomitant inhibition of inward I-CaL and outward K+ currents, which limits changes in net repolarizing current and thus prevents major changes in AP repolarization
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