12 research outputs found

    Ambrafuran (AmbroxTM) Synthesis from Natural Plant Product Precursors

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    Ambergris, an excretion product of sperm whales, has been a valued agent in the formulation of perfumes. The composition of ambergris consists of two major components: 40–46% cholestanol type steroids and approximately 25–45% of a triterpenoid known as ambrein. Ambergris undergoes oxidative decomposition in the environment to result in odorous compounds, such as ambraoxide, methylambraoxide, and ambracetal. Its oxidized form, ambrafuran (IUPAC name: 3a,6,6,9a-tetramethyl-2,4,5,5a,7,8,9,9b-octahydro-1H-benzo[e][1]benzofuran), is a terpene furan with a pleasant odor and unique olfactive and fixative properties. The current state of the fragrance industry uses ambrafuran materials entirely from synthetic or semisynthetic sources. However, natural compounds with the potential to be converted to ambergris-like odorants have been extracted from several different types of plants. Here we review plant terpenoids suitable as starting materials for the semisyntheses of ambrafuran or intermediates, such as ambradiol, that can be used in biocatalytic transformations to yield ambrafuran

    Untargeted Metabolomics Exploration of the Growth Stage-Dependent Chemical Space of the Sclareol-Converting Biocatalyst Hyphozyma roseonigra

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    Hyphozyma roseonigra is a dimorphic yeast used as a biocatalyst to convert sclareol, a plant diterpenoid to ambradiol. The latter is an intermediate in the synthesis of ambrafuran, a high-value chemical in the fragrance industry. Unfortunately, little is known about the underlying biochemistry of this microorganism. In this study, the integration of multi-platform-based metabolomics was used to better comprehend H. roseonigra from a biochemical perspective. The focus on metabolomic changes during growth and development was accomplished using untargeted LC–MS and NMR analyses. Cell suspensions were grown in batch culture over a 14-day period, and cells from the early-, log-, and stationary phases were harvested every second day using platform-compatible extraction procedures. Following chemometric analysis of LC–MS and NMR data acquired from both intra- and extracellular extracts, the identified discriminatory ions annotated from the endo- and exometabolomes (metabo-fingerprinting and metabo-footprinting) were found to fall predominantly in the primary metabolism class. Pathway mapping and feature-based network correlation analysis assisted in gaining insights into the active metabolic pathways during growth and development and did not flag terpene synthesis. This study provides novel insights into the basic metabolic capabilities of H. roseonigra and suggests that sclareol is metabolized as the detoxification of a hydrophobic xenobiotic compound

    Untargeted Metabolomics Exploration of the Growth Stage-Dependent Chemical Space of the Sclareol-Converting Biocatalyst <i>Hyphozyma roseonigra</i>

    No full text
    Hyphozyma roseonigra is a dimorphic yeast used as a biocatalyst to convert sclareol, a plant diterpenoid to ambradiol. The latter is an intermediate in the synthesis of ambrafuran, a high-value chemical in the fragrance industry. Unfortunately, little is known about the underlying biochemistry of this microorganism. In this study, the integration of multi-platform-based metabolomics was used to better comprehend H. roseonigra from a biochemical perspective. The focus on metabolomic changes during growth and development was accomplished using untargeted LC–MS and NMR analyses. Cell suspensions were grown in batch culture over a 14-day period, and cells from the early-, log-, and stationary phases were harvested every second day using platform-compatible extraction procedures. Following chemometric analysis of LC–MS and NMR data acquired from both intra- and extracellular extracts, the identified discriminatory ions annotated from the endo- and exometabolomes (metabo-fingerprinting and metabo-footprinting) were found to fall predominantly in the primary metabolism class. Pathway mapping and feature-based network correlation analysis assisted in gaining insights into the active metabolic pathways during growth and development and did not flag terpene synthesis. This study provides novel insights into the basic metabolic capabilities of H. roseonigra and suggests that sclareol is metabolized as the detoxification of a hydrophobic xenobiotic compound

    Identification of Plant-Derived Bioactive Compounds Using Affinity Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Networking

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    Affinity selection-mass spectrometry (AS-MS) is a label-free binding assay system that uses UHPLC-MS size-based separation methods to separate target-compound complexes from unbound compounds, identify bound compounds, classify compound binding sites, quantify the dissociation rate constant of compounds, and characterize affinity-extracted ligands. This label-free binding assay, in contrast to conventional biochemical (i.e., high-throughput screening (HTS)) approaches, is applicable to any drug target, and is also concise, accurate, and adaptable. Although AS-MS is an innovative approach for identifying lead compounds, the possibilities of finding bioactive compounds are limited by competitive binding, which occurs during the equilibration of extracts with the target protein(s). Here, we discuss the potential for metabolite profiling complemented with molecular networking to be used alongside AS-MS to improve the identification of bioactive compounds in plant extracts. AS-MS has gained significant prominence in HTS labs and shows potential to emerge as the driving force behind novel drug development in the future

    Metabolomics-Guided Analysis of the Biocatalytic Conversion of Sclareol to Ambradiol by <i>Hyphozyma roseoniger</i>

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    The biocatalytic conversion of sclareol to ambradiol, a valuable component in the fragrance industry, using whole-cell biotransformation by the dimorphic yeast Hyphozyma roseoniger, was investigated using metabolomics tools. An integrated approach was used to identify and quantify the participating intermediates in this bioconversion using both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC–MS). This study entailed growth stage-dependent analysis of H. roseoniger suspensions grown in batch culture over a 14-day period, beginning with a three-day induction period using 20 mg/200 mL sclareol, followed by a further 1 g/200 mL sclareol dose to enable ambradiol production. The progress of the bioconversion and the resulting dynamic changes to the metabolome were monitored using NMR analysis and semi-targeted LC–MS metabolomics. This outlined the molecular conversions occurring within the matrix and no novel intermediates participating in the sclareol to ambradiol conversion could be identified. This study presents new findings about the transformative capabilities of H. roseoniger as a whole cell biocatalyst, highlighting its potential utility in similar applications

    Metabolomics-Guided Analysis of the Biocatalytic Conversion of Sclareol to Ambradiol by Hyphozyma roseoniger

    No full text
    The biocatalytic conversion of sclareol to ambradiol, a valuable component in the fragrance industry, using whole-cell biotransformation by the dimorphic yeast Hyphozyma roseoniger, was investigated using metabolomics tools. An integrated approach was used to identify and quantify the participating intermediates in this bioconversion using both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC&ndash;MS). This study entailed growth stage-dependent analysis of H. roseoniger suspensions grown in batch culture over a 14-day period, beginning with a three-day induction period using 20 mg/200 mL sclareol, followed by a further 1 g/200 mL sclareol dose to enable ambradiol production. The progress of the bioconversion and the resulting dynamic changes to the metabolome were monitored using NMR analysis and semi-targeted LC&ndash;MS metabolomics. This outlined the molecular conversions occurring within the matrix and no novel intermediates participating in the sclareol to ambradiol conversion could be identified. This study presents new findings about the transformative capabilities of H. roseoniger as a whole cell biocatalyst, highlighting its potential utility in similar applications
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