8,787 research outputs found

    On the evidence derived from the anatomical analysis of wooden remains from archaeological excavation

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    Book Reviews

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    Crossover from adiabatic to sudden interaction quenches in the Hubbard model: Prethermalization and nonequilibrium dynamics

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    The recent experimental implementation of condensed matter models in optical lattices has motivated research on their nonequilibrium behavior. Predictions on the dynamics of superconductors following a sudden quench of the pairing interaction have been made based on the effective BCS Hamiltonian; however, their experimental verification requires the preparation of a suitable excited state of the Hubbard model along a twofold constraint: (i) a sufficiently nonadiabatic ramping scheme is essential to excite the nonequilibrium dynamics, and (ii) overheating beyond the critical temperature of superconductivity must be avoided. For commonly discussed interaction ramps there is no clear separation of the corresponding energy scales. Here we show that the matching of both conditions is simplified by the intrinsic relaxation behavior of ultracold fermionic systems: For the particular example of a linear ramp we examine the transient regime of prethermalization [M. Moeckel and S. Kehrein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 175702 (2008)] under the crossover from sudden to adiabatic switching using Keldysh perturbation theory. A real-time analysis of the momentum distribution exhibits a temporal separation of an early energy relaxation and its later thermalization by scattering events. For long but finite ramping times this separation can be large. In the prethermalization regime the momentum distribution resembles a zero temperature Fermi liquid as the energy inserted by the ramp remains located in high energy modes. Thus ultracold fermions prove robust to heating which simplifies the observation of nonequilibrium BCS dynamics in optical lattices.Comment: 27 pages, 8 figures Second version with small modifications in section

    Photoemission Evidence for a Remnant Fermi Surface and d-Wave-Like Dispersion in Insulating Ca2CuO2Cl2

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    An angle resolved photoemission study on Ca2CuO2Cl2, a parent compound of high Tc superconductors is reported. Analysis of the electron occupation probability, n(k) from the spectra shows a steep drop in spectral intensity across a contour that is close to the Fermi surface predicted by the band calculation. This analysis reveals a Fermi surface remnant even though Ca2CuO2Cl2 is a Mott insulator. The lowest energy peak exhibits a dispersion with approximately the |cos(kxa)-cos(kya)| form along this remnant Fermi surface. Together with the data from Dy doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8 + delta) these results suggest that this d-wave like dispersion of the insulator is the underlying reason for the pseudo gap in the underdoped regime.Comment: 9 pages, including 7 figures. Published in Science, one figure correcte

    A new actinic flux 4?-spectroradiometer: Instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions

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    International audienceA new 4p-spectroradiometer was developed for measuring actinic flux especially under cloudy conditions based on a fixed grating imaging spectrograph and a CCD-detector leading to a simultaneous measurement of the spectrum. The new instrument incorporates a novel optical head with a 4p-field of view independent of angle of incidence. Comparisons with the actinic flux spectroradiometer of the Institute of Atmospheric Chemistry of Forschungszentrum JĂĽlich showed a very good agreement within the limit of the uncertainties of the two instruments. Our spectroradiometer was applied to investigate the effects of broken clouds on the actinic flux and photolysis frequencies on the ground during the BERLIOZ campaign. Reductions as well as enhancements compared to the clear sky case were seen, both effects are larger in the UV-A than the UV-B spectral region. Furthermore the new instrument was used for simultaneous measurements in different altitudes on a tower to study the transmission and attenuation of actinic flux in low clouds. A correlation of attenuation with the simultaneously measured liquid water content of the cloud was found

    Electronic reconstruction at SrMnO3-LaMnO3 superlattice interfaces

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    We use resonant soft x-ray scattering to study electronic reconstruction at the interface between the Mott insulator LaMnO3 and the "band" insulator SrMnO3. Superlattices of these two insulators were shown previously to have both ferromagnetism and metallic tendencies [Koida et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 144418 (2002)]. By studying a judiciously chosen superlattice reflection we show that the interface density of states exhibits a pronounced peak at the Fermi level, similar to that predicted by Okamoto et al. [Phys. Rev. B 70, 241104(R) (2004)]. The intensity of this peak correlates with the conductivity and magnetization, suggesting it is the driver of metallic behavior. Our study demonstrates a general strategy for using RSXS to probe the electronic properties of heterostructure interfaces.Comment: 4.2 pages, 4 figure

    7th International Workshop on Osteoarthritis Imaging report: “imaging in OA – now is the time to move ahead”

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    SummaryThe 7th Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) International Workshop on Osteoarthritis Imaging was held in Reykjavik, Iceland, from July 9–12, 2014; attracting attendees from academia, pharmaceutical and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) industries, as well as a large number of young investigators. The Workshop program consisted of six modules, including imaging in osteoarthritis (OA), imaging and pain in OA, new techniques in imaging, risk factors and structural outcomes, anti-nerve growth factor (a-NGF) therapy, and joint replacement. A wealth of data was presented from OA researchers from all over the world and participants gained insightful knowledge on up-to-date research work focusing on imaging of OA. This paper presents a summary of the salient points from the workshop.ConclusionsIdentifying the appropriate imaging modality and parameters will be critical for ensuring responsive, reproducible and reliable outcomes for clinical trials. Continued efforts from the OA research community are needed to establish the most effective use of imaging in OA clinical trials, including anti-NGF therapy and joint replacement trials, and to validate newer imaging techniques such as compositional MRI for use in the future clinical trials

    Hopping on the Bethe lattice: Exact results for densities of states and dynamical mean-field theory

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    We derive an operator identity which relates tight-binding Hamiltonians with arbitrary hopping on the Bethe lattice to the Hamiltonian with nearest-neighbor hopping. This provides an exact expression for the density of states (DOS) of a non-interacting quantum-mechanical particle for any hopping. We present analytic results for the DOS corresponding to hopping between nearest and next-nearest neighbors, and also for exponentially decreasing hopping amplitudes. Conversely it is possible to construct a hopping Hamiltonian on the Bethe lattice for any given DOS. These methods are based only on the so-called distance regularity of the infinite Bethe lattice, and not on the absence of loops. Results are also obtained for the triangular Husimi cactus, a recursive lattice with loops. Furthermore we derive the exact self-consistency equations arising in the context of dynamical mean-field theory, which serve as a starting point for studies of Hubbard-type models with frustration.Comment: 14 pages, 9 figures; introduction expanded, references added; published versio
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