47 research outputs found

    Raman Spectroscopy and Ab-Initio Model Calculations on Ionic Liquids:Invited Review

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    Adjective forms and functions in British English child-directed speech

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    Adjectives are essential for describing and differentiating concepts. However, they have a protracted development relative to other word classes. Here we measure three- and four-year-olds鈥 exposure to adjectives across a range of interactive and socioeconomic contexts to: (i) measure the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic variability of adjectives in child-directed speech (CDS); and (ii) investigate how features of the input might scaffold adjective acquisition. In our novel corpus of UK English, adjectives occurred more frequently in prenominal than in postnominal (predicative) syntactic frames, though postnominal frames were more frequent for less-familiar adjectives. They occurred much more frequently with a descriptive than a contrastive function, especially for less-familiar adjectives. Our findings present a partial mismatch between the forms of adjectives found in real-world CDS and those forms that have been shown to be more useful for learning. We discuss implications for models of adjective acquisition and for clinical practice

    Binary Mixtures of Ionic Liquids: A Joint Approach to Investigate their Properties and Catalytic Ability

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    The growing interest in the properties and applications of ionic liquids has recently led to research into the possibility of using their binary mixtures. This work reports on the effects of binary mixtures of ionic liquids on the outcome of organic reactions such as the mononuclear rearrangement of heterocycles and the solvatochromic behavior of Nile Red. Binary mixtures formed by ionic liquids differing in the structure of the cation and the anion are taken into account. In particular, ionic liquids such as 1-benzyl-3- butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl)-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and 1-benzyl-3-butylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, are studied. To achieve a deep understanding of the properties of ionic-liquid binary mixtures, their three-dimensional organization was analyzed by a combination of resonance light scattering, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy. Data collected herein evidence that the most significant changes in the ionic lattice structure, and consequently the most pronounced effects exerted as solvent media, occur when the studied system involves a blend of different anions. Mixing two ionic liquids (ILs) affects the outcome of reactions such as mononuclear rearrangement of a heterocycle (MRH) and solvatochromism of Nile Red. Greater changes in the ionic lattice are found when an IL mixture contains different anions
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