60 research outputs found

    Recent highlights and prospects on (n,Îł\gamma) measurements at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    Neutron capture cross-section measurements are fundamental in the study of the slow neutron capture (s-) process of nucleosynthesis and for the development of innovative nuclear technologies. One of the best suited methods to measure radiative neutron capture (n,Îł\gamma) cross sections over the full stellar range of interest for all the applications is the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. Overcoming the current experimental limitations for TOF measurements, in particular on low mass unstable samples, requires the combination of facilities with high instantaneous flux, such as the CERN n_TOF facility, with detection systems with an enhanced detection sensitivity and high counting rate capabilities. This contribution presents a summary about the recent highlights in the field of (n,Îł\gamma) measurements at n_TOF. The recent upgrades in the facility and in new detector concepts for (n,\g) measurements are described. Last, an overview is given on the existing limitations and prospects for TOF measurements involving unstable targets and the outlook for activation measurements at the brand new high-flux n_TOF-NEAR station.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures (8 panels). Proceedings of the CGS-17 conference. To be published in EPJ Web of Conference

    Aneuploidy in intestinal stem cells promotes gut dysplasia in Drosophila

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    Aneuploidy is associated with different human diseases including cancer. However, different cell types appear to respond differently to aneuploidy, either by promoting tumorigenesis or causing cell death. We set out to study the behavior of adult Drosophila melanogaster intestinal stem cells (ISCs) after induction of chromosome missegregation either by abrogation of the spindle assembly checkpoint or through kinetochore disruption or centrosome amplification. These conditions induce moderate levels of aneuploidy in ISCs, and we find no evidence of apoptosis. Instead, we observe a significant accumulation of ISCs associated with increased stem cell proliferation and an excess of enteroendocrine cells. Moreover, aneuploidy causes up-regulation of the JNK pathway throughout the posterior midgut, and specific inhibition of JNK signaling in ISCs is sufficient to prevent dysplasia. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the behavior of different stem cell populations to aneuploidy and how these can act as reservoirs for genomic alterations that can lead to tissue pathologies.This article is a result of the project Norte Portugal Regional Operational Program (NORTE 2020) Norte-01-0145-FEDER-000029 – Advancing Cancer Research: From basic knowledge to application, under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement through the European Regional Development Fund, and it is also funded by National Funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia under the project PTDC/BEX-BCM/1921/2014

    Conditional targeting of MAD1 to kinetochores is sufficient to reactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint in metaphase

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    Fidelity of chromosome segregation is monitored by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Key components of the SAC include MAD1, MAD2, BUB1, BUB3, BUBR1, and MPS1. These proteins accumulate on kinetochores in early prometaphase but are displaced when chromosomes attach to microtubules and/or biorient on the mitotic spindle. As a result, stable attachment of the final chromosome satisfies the SAC, permitting activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and subsequent anaphase onset. SAC satisfaction is reversible, however, as addition of taxol during metaphase stops cyclin B1 degradation by the APC/C. We now show that targeting MAD1 to kinetochores during metaphase is sufficient to reestablish SAC activity after initial silencing. Using rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of FKBP-MAD1 to FRB-MIS12 and live monitoring of cyclin B1 degradation, we show that timed relocalization of MAD1 during metaphase can stop cyclin B1 degradation without affecting chromosome-spindle attachments. APC/C inhibition represented true SAC reactivation, as FKBP-MAD1 required an intact MAD2-interaction motif and MPS1 activity to accomplish this. Our data show that MAD1 kinetochore localization dictates SAC activity and imply that SAC regulatory mechanisms downstream of MAD1 remain functional in metaphase. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00412-014-0458-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

    Pushing the high count rate limits of scintillation detectors for challenging neutron-capture experiments

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    One of the critical aspects for the accurate determination of neutron capture cross sections when combining time-of-flight and total energy detector techniques is the characterization and control of systematic uncertainties associated to the measuring devices. In this work we explore the most conspicuous effects associated to harsh count rate conditions: dead-time and pile-up effects. Both effects, when not properly treated, can lead to large systematic uncertainties and bias in the determination of neutron cross sections. In the majority of neutron capture measurements carried out at the CERN n\_TOF facility, the detectors of choice are the C6_{6}D6_{6} liquid-based either in form of large-volume cells or recently commissioned sTED detector array, consisting of much smaller-volume modules. To account for the aforementioned effects, we introduce a Monte Carlo model for these detectors mimicking harsh count rate conditions similar to those happening at the CERN n\_TOF 20~m fligth path vertical measuring station. The model parameters are extracted by comparison with the experimental data taken at the same facility during 2022 experimental campaign. We propose a novel methodology to consider both, dead-time and pile-up effects simultaneously for these fast detectors and check the applicability to experimental data from 197^{197}Au(nn,Îł\gamma), including the saturated 4.9~eV resonance which is an important component of normalization for neutron cross section measurements

    Advances and new ideas for neutron-capture astrophysics experiments at CERN n_TOF

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    This article presents a few selected developments and future ideas related to the measurement of (n,Îł) data of astrophysical interest at CERN n_TOF. The MC-aided analysis methodology for the use of low-efficiency radiation detectors in time-of-flight neutron-capture measurements is discussed, with particular emphasis on the systematic accuracy. Several recent instrumental advances are also presented, such as the development of total-energy detectors with Îł-ray imaging capability for background suppression, and the development of an array of small-volume organic scintillators aimed at exploiting the high instantaneous neutron-flux of EAR2. Finally, astrophysics prospects related to the intermediate i neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis are discussed in the context of the new NEAR activation area

    Advances and new ideas for neutron-capture astrophysics experiments at CERN n_TOF

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    This article presents a few selected developments and future ideas related to the measurement of (n,Îł) data of astrophysical interest at CERN n_TOF. The MC-aided analysis methodology for the use of low-efficiency radiation detectors in time-of-flight neutron-capture measurements is discussed, with particular emphasis on the systematic accuracy. Several recent instrumental advances are also presented, such as the development of total-energy detectors with Îł-ray imaging capability for background suppression, and the development of an array of small-volume organic scintillators aimed at exploiting the high instantaneous neutron-flux of EAR2. Finally, astrophysics prospects related to the intermediate i neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis are discussed in the context of the new NEAR activation area
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