3,122 research outputs found

    Lyapunov Generation of Entanglement and the Correspondence Principle

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    We show how a classically vanishing interaction generates entanglement between two initially nonentangled particles, without affecting their classical dynamics. For chaotic dynamics, the rate of entanglement is shown to saturate at the Lyapunov exponent of the classical dynamics as the interaction strength increases. In the saturation regime, the one-particle Wigner function follows classical dynamics better and better as one goes deeper and deeper in the semiclassical limit. This demonstrates that quantum-classical correspondence at the microscopic level requires neither high temperatures, nor coupling to a large number of external degrees of freedom

    Einselection without pointer states

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    We consider small subsystems of large, closed quantum systems that evolve according to the von Neumann equation. Without approximations and without making any special assumptions on the form of the interaction we prove that, for almost all initial states and almost all times, the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix of the subsystem in the eigenbasis of its local Hamiltonian must be small, whenever the energy difference of the corresponding eigenstates is larger than the interaction energy. This proves that decoherence with respect to the local energy eigenbasis is a natural property of weakly interacting quantum systems.Comment: published in Phys. Rev. E, 4 pages, no figures, revised introduction and conclusions, references revised and new references added, editorial change

    Decoherence and entropy of primordial fluctuations. I: Formalism and interpretation

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    We propose an operational definition of the entropy of cosmological perturbations based on a truncation of the hierarchy of Green functions. The value of the entropy is unambiguous despite gauge invariance and the renormalization procedure. At the first level of truncation, the reduced density matrices are Gaussian and the entropy is the only intrinsic quantity. In this case, the quantum-to-classical transition concerns the entanglement of modes of opposite wave-vectors, and the threshold of classicality is that of separability. The relations to other criteria of classicality are established. We explain why, during inflation, most of these criteria are not intrinsic. We complete our analysis by showing that all reduced density matrices can be written as statistical mixtures of minimal states, the squeezed properties of which are less constrained as the entropy increases. Pointer states therefore appear not to be relevant to the discussion. The entropy is calculated for various models in paper II.Comment: 23 page

    Long-Time Coherence in Echo Spectroscopy with π/2\pi/2--π\pi--π/2\pi/2 Pulse Sequence

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    Motivated by atom optics experiments, we investigate a new class of fidelity functions describing the reconstruction of quantum states by time-reversal operations as MDa(t)=∣<ψ∣eiH2t/2eiH1t/2e−iH2t/2e−iH1t/2∣ψ>∣2M_{\mathrm{Da}}(t) = | <\psi | e^{i H_2 t / 2} e^{i H_1 t / 2} e^{-i H_2 t / 2} e^{-i H_1 t / 2} | \psi >|^2. We show that the decay of MDaM_{\mathrm{Da}} is quartic in time at short times, and that it freezes well above the ergodic value at long times, when H2−H1H_2-H_1 is not too large. The long-time saturation value of MDaM_{\mathrm{Da}} contains easily extractable information on the strength of decoherence in these systems.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Loschmidt echo with a non-equilibrium initial state: early time scaling and enhanced decoherence

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    We study the Loschmidt echo (LE) in a central spin model in which a central spin is globally coupled to an environment (E) which is subjected to a small and sudden quench at t=0t=0 so that its state at t=0+t=0^+, remains the same as the ground state of the initial environmental Hamiltonian before the quench; this leads to a non-equilibrium situation. This state now evolves with two Hamiltonians, the final Hamiltonian following the quench and its modified version which incorporates an additional term arising due to the coupling of the central spin to the environment. Using a generic short-time scaling of the decay rate, we establish that in the early time limit, the rate of decay of the LE (or the overlap between two states generated from the initial state evolving through two channels) close to the quantum critical point (QCP) of E is independent of the quenching. We do also study the temporal evolution of the LE and establish the presence of a crossover to a situation where the quenching becomes irrelevant. In the limit of large quench amplitude the non-equilibrium initial condition is found to result in a drastic increase in decoherence at large times, even far away from a QCP. These generic results are verified analytically as well as numerically, choosing E to be a transverse Ising chain where the transverse field is suddenly quenched.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figures; New results, figures and references added, title change

    Shot Noise of Spin-Decohering Transport in Spin-Orbit Coupled Nanostructures

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    We generalize the scattering theory of quantum shot noise to include the full spin-density matrix of electrons injected from a spin-filtering or ferromagnetic electrode into a quantum-coherent nanostructure governed by various spin-dependent interactions. This formalism yields the spin-resolved shot noise power for different experimental measurement setups--with ferromagnetic source and ferromagnetic or normal drain electrodes--whose evaluation for the diffusive multichannel quantum wires with the Rashba (SO) spin-orbit coupling shows how spin decoherence and dephasing lead to substantial enhancement of charge current fluctuations (characterized by Fano factors >1/3> 1/3). However, these processes and the corresponding shot noise increase are suppressed in narrow wires, so that charge transport experiments measuring the Fano factor F↑→↑↓F_{\uparrow \to \uparrow \downarrow} in a ferromagnet/SO-coupled-wire/paramagnet setup also quantify the degree of phase-coherence of transported spin--we predict a one-to-one correspondence between the magnitude of the spin polarization vector and F↑→↑↓F_{\uparrow \to \uparrow \downarrow}.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figure; enhanced with 2 new figure

    Collisional decoherence reexamined

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    We re-derive the quantum master equation for the decoherence of a massive Brownian particle due to collisions with the lighter particles from a thermal environment. Our careful treatment avoids the occurrence of squares of Dirac delta functions. It leads to a decoherence rate which is smaller by a factor of 2 pi compared to previous findings. This result, which is in agreement with recent experiments, is confirmed by both a physical analysis of the problem and by a perturbative calculation in the weak coupling limit.Comment: 33 pages, 4 figure

    Decoherence: Concepts and Examples

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    We give a pedagogical introduction to the process of decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. After discussing the general concepts, we present the following examples: Localisation of objects, quantum Zeno effect, classicality of fields and charges in QED, and decoherence in gravity theory. We finally emphasise the important interpretational features of decoherence.Comment: 24 pages, LATEX, 9 figures, needs macro lamuphys.sty, to appear in the Proceedings of the 10th Born Symposiu

    Reduced coherence in double-slit diffraction of neutrons

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    In diffraction experiments with particle beams, several effects lead to a fringe visibility reduction of the interference pattern. We theoretically describe the intensity one can measure in a double-slit setup and compare the results with the experimental data obtained with cold neutrons. Our conclusion is that for cold neutrons the fringe visibility reduction is due not to decoherence, but to initial incoherence.Comment: 4 pages LaTeX, 2 figure

    Why the Universe Started from a Low Entropy State

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    We show that the inclusion of backreaction of massive long wavelengths imposes dynamical constraints on the allowed phase space of initial conditions for inflation, which results in a superselection rule for the initial conditions. Only high energy inflation is stable against collapse due to the gravitational instability of massive perturbations. We present arguments to the effect that the initial conditions problem {\it cannot} be meaningfully addressed by thermostatistics as far as the gravitational degrees of freedom are concerned. Rather, the choice of the initial conditions for the universe in the phase space and the emergence of an arrow of time have to be treated as a dynamic selection.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figs. Final version; agrees with accepted version in Phys. Rev.
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