24,701 research outputs found

    Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program. II: Wavelength Parallelization

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    We describe an important addition to the parallel implementation of our generalized NLTE stellar atmosphere and radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. In a previous paper in this series we described data and task parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. These algorithms divided the work spatially or by spectral lines, that is distributing the radial zones, individual spectral lines, or characteristic rays among different processors and employ, in addition task parallelism for logically independent functions (such as atomic and molecular line opacities). For finite, monotonic velocity fields, the radiative transfer equation is an initial value problem in wavelength, and hence each wavelength point depends upon the previous one. However, for sophisticated NLTE models of both static and moving atmospheres needed to accurately describe, e.g., novae and supernovae, the number of wavelength points is very large (200,000--300,000) and hence parallelization over wavelength can lead both to considerable speedup in calculation time and the ability to make use of the aggregate memory available on massively parallel supercomputers. Here, we describe an implementation of a pipelined design for the wavelength parallelization of PHOENIX, where the necessary data from the processor working on a previous wavelength point is sent to the processor working on the succeeding wavelength point as soon as it is known. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based on a relatively small number of standard MPI library calls and is fully portable between serial and parallel computers.Comment: AAS-TeX, 15 pages, full text with figures available at ftp://calvin.physast.uga.edu/pub/preprints/Wavelength-Parallel.ps.gz ApJ, in pres

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: IV. spherical & cylindrical coordinate systems

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    We extend our framework for 3D radiative transfer calculations with a non-local operator splitting methods along (full) characteristics to spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems. These coordinate systems are better suited to a number of physical problems than Cartesian coordinates. The scattering problem for line transfer is solved via means of an operator splitting (OS) technique. The formal solution is based on a full characteristics method. The approximate Λ\Lambda operator is constructed considering nearest neighbors exactly. The code is parallelized over both wavelength and solid angle using the MPI library. We present the results of several test cases with different values of the thermalization parameter for the different coordinate systems. The results are directly compared to 1D plane parallel tests. The 3D results agree very well with the well-tested 1D calculations.Comment: A&A, in pres

    Parallel Implementation of the PHOENIX Generalized Stellar Atmosphere Program

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    We describe the parallel implementation of our generalized stellar atmosphere and NLTE radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. We discuss the parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based on a relatively small number of MPI library calls. We report the results of test calculations on a number of different parallel computers and discuss the results of scalability tests.Comment: To appear in ApJ, 1997, vol 483. LaTeX, 34 pages, 3 Figures, uses AASTeX macros and styles natbib.sty, and psfig.st

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: XI. multi-level NLTE

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    Multi-level non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) radiation transfer calculations have become standard throughout the stellar atmospheres community and are applied to all types of stars as well as dynamical systems such as novae and supernovae. Even today spherically symmetric 1D calculations with full physics are computationally intensive. We show that full NLTE calculations can be done with fully 3 dimensional (3D) radiative transfer. With modern computational techniques and current massive parallel computational resources, full detailed solution of the multi-level NLTE problem coupled to the solution of the radiative transfer scattering problem can be solved without sacrificing the micro physics description. We extend the use of a rate operator developed to solve the coupled NLTE problem in spherically symmetric 1D systems. In order to spread memory among processors we have implemented the NLTE/3D module with a hierarchical domain decomposition method that distributes the NLTE levels, radiative rates, and rate operator data over a group of processes so that each process only holds the data for a fraction of the voxels. Each process in a group holds all the relevant data to participate in the solution of the 3DRT problem so that the 3DRT solution is parallelized within a domain decomposition group. We solve a spherically symmetric system in 3D spherical coordinates in order to directly compare our well-tested 1D code to the 3D case. We compare three levels of tests: a) a simple H+He test calculation, b) H+He+CNO+Mg, c) H+He+Fe. The last test is computationally large and shows that realistic astrophysical problems are solvable now, but they do require significant computational resources. With presently available computational resources it is possible to solve the full 3D multi-level problem with the same detailed micro-physics as included in 1D modeling.Comment: 20 pages, 14 figures, A&A, in pres

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: III. periodic boundary conditions

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    We present a general method to solve radiative transfer problems including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in 3D configurations with periodic boundary conditions. he scattering problem for line transfer is solved via means of an operator splitting (OS) technique. The formal solution is based on a full characteristics method. The approximate Λ\Lambda operator is constructed considering nearest neighbors exactly. The code is parallelized over both wavelength and solid angle using the MPI library. We present the results of several test cases with different values of the thermalization parameter and two choices for the temperature structure. The results are directly compared to 1D plane parallel tests. The 3D results agree very well with the well-tested 1D calculations.Comment: A&A, in press, visualization figure omitted due to size, available at ftp://phoenix.hs.uni-hamburg.de/preprints/3DRT_paper3.pd

    A 3D radiative transfer framework: VII. Arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame

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    A solution of the radiative-transfer problem in 3D with arbitrary velocity fields in the Eulerian frame is presented. The method is implemented in our 3D radiative transfer framework and used in the PHOENIX/3D code. It is tested by comparison to our well- tested 1D co-moving frame radiative transfer code, where the treatment of a monotonic velocity field is implemented in the Lagrangian frame. The Eulerian formulation does not need much additional memory and is useable on state-of-the-art computers, even large-scale applications with 1000's of wavelength points are feasible

    Numerical Solution of the Expanding Stellar Atmosphere Problem

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    In this paper we discuss numerical methods and algorithms for the solution of NLTE stellar atmosphere problems involving expanding atmospheres, e.g., found in novae, supernovae and stellar winds. We show how a scheme of nested iterations can be used to reduce the high dimension of the problem to a number of problems with smaller dimensions. As examples of these sub-problems, we discuss the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation for relativistically expanding media with spherical symmetry, the solution of the multi-level non-LTE statistical equilibrium problem for extremely large model atoms, and our temperature correction procedure. Although modern iteration schemes are very efficient, parallel algorithms are essential in making large scale calculations feasible, therefore we discuss some parallelization schemes that we have developed.Comment: JCAM, in press. 28 pages, also available at ftp://calvin.physast.uga.edu:/pub/preprints/CompAstro.ps.g
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