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    Ecological and biological features of Triglochin maritima L. in the biotopes of the littoral zone with different degree of flooding on the coast of the White Sea

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    The study of Triglochin maritima L. was carried out on the Pomor (western) coast of the White Sea, in the Republic of Karelia (64°22'81"N, 35°93'14"E). Morphological analysis of aboveground and underground parts of the clones was performed on virginal plants. Anatomical analysis of leaf sheaths of the current year shoots, rhizomes and adventitious roots was carried out. The viability of pollen was assessed by determining the relative share of normally developed and malformed pollen grains. The content of heavy metals was determined in the soil, sea water and plant samples. The study was carried out on a model transect in the littoral zone on three test plots representing the lower littoral; the middle and the upper littoral zones. Adaptation to wave and storm impact was manifested in a well-developed system of underground organs. In the lower littoral, underground part surpasses the aboveground vegetative organs in terms of the mass and the formation of mechanical tissues. This allows the plants to anchor stronger in the substrate. Pollen analysis confirmed the adaptability of T. maritima plants to the conditions of the lower littoral by a high percentage of normal and, consequently, fertile pollen, which ensures sexual reproduction of the species. T. maritima can be considered as a Fe hyperaccumulator as the plant accumulates very high levels of Fe (22–34 g kg-1), especially in the lower and middle littoral zones, both in underground and aboveground organs. The ability of T. maritima plants to actively deposit metals was revealed on the basis of the coefficient of biological absorption of metals and makes it possible to suggest potential possibility of using the species in phytoremediation technologies on coastal territories