23 research outputs found

    "The Martial Islands": Making Marshallese Masculinities between American and Japanese Militarism

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    For over a century, the Marshall Islands have been entangled between the United States and Japan in their conquest of the Central Pacific; yet because of this, these islands have also been a place where multiple masculinities have converged, competed, and transformed each other. This is especially true around the site of Kwajalein Atoll, where terrain understood in Marshallese terms as female or maternal has been reshaped and masculinized through the semiotics of colonialism and militarization. This article focuses specifically on three local representations of masculinity: the knowledgeable but strategic Marshallese "Etao," symbolized by a creative and resourceful male trickster spirit; the heroic but paternalistic American "Patriot," as enacted via the perpetual battlefield of military and weapons-testing missions; and the adventurous but self-sacrificing "Dankichi," deployed in Japan during the 1930s and echoed nowadays in the long-distance tuna-fishing industry. Cross-reading Judith Butler and R W Connell, this is an exploration of the "theater" of these masculinities in relationship to one another, and the story of how different superpowers strive for domination by emasculating a third colonial site and its subjects

    TNF-Receptor Inhibitor Therapy for the Treatment of Children with Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome. A Joint Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium and Children's Oncology Group Study (ASCT0521)

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    AbstractIdiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is an acute, noninfectious lung disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Previous studies have suggested a role for TNFα in the pathogenesis of IPS. We report a multicenter phase II trial investigating a soluble TNF-binding protein, etanercept (Enbrel, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), for the treatment of pediatric patients with IPS. Eligible patients were < 18 years old, within 120 days after transplantation, and with radiographic evidence of a diffuse pneumonitis. All patients underwent a pretherapy broncho-alveolor lavage (BAL) to establish the diagnosis of IPS. Systemic corticosteroids (2.0 mg/kg/day) plus etanercept (.4 mg/kg twice weekly × 8 doses) were administered. Response was defined as survival and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen support by day 28 of study. Thirty-nine patients (median age, 11 years; range, 1 to 17) were enrolled, with 11 of 39 patients nonevaluable because of identification of pathogens from their pretherapy BAL. In the remaining 28 patients, the median fraction of inspired oxygen at study entry was 45%, with 17 of 28 requiring mechanical ventilation. Complete responses were seen in 20 (71%) patients, with a median time to response of 10 days (range, 1 to 24). Response rates were higher for patients not requiring mechanical ventilation at study entry (100% versus 53%, P = .01). Overall survival at 28 days and 1 year after therapy were 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70% to 96%) and 63% (95% CI, 42% to 79%), respectively. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly increased at onset of therapy, subsequently decreasing in responding patients. The addition of etanercept to high-dose corticosteroids was associated with high response rates and survival in children with IPS

    Pulmonary Metagenomic Sequencing Suggests Missed Infections in Immunocompromised Children

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    This article is made available for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing.BACKGROUND: Despite improved diagnostics, pulmonary pathogens in immunocompromised children frequently evade detection, leading to significant mortality. Therefore, we aimed to develop a highly sensitive metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) assay capable of evaluating the pulmonary microbiome and identifying diverse pathogens in the lungs of immunocompromised children. METHODS: We collected 41 lower respiratory specimens from 34 immunocompromised children undergoing evaluation for pulmonary disease at 3 children's hospitals from 2014-2016. Samples underwent mechanical homogenization, parallel RNA/DNA extraction, and metagenomic sequencing. Sequencing reads were aligned to the National Center for Biotechnology Information nucleotide reference database to determine taxonomic identities. Statistical outliers were determined based on abundance within each sample and relative to other samples in the cohort. RESULTS: We identified a rich cross-domain pulmonary microbiome that contained bacteria, fungi, RNA viruses, and DNA viruses in each patient. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were ubiquitous among samples but could be distinguished as possible causes of disease by parsing for outlier organisms. Samples with bacterial outliers had significantly depressed alpha-diversity (median, 0.61; interquartile range [IQR], 0.33-0.72 vs median, 0.96; IQR, 0.94-0.96; P < .001). Potential pathogens were detected in half of samples previously negative by clinical diagnostics, demonstrating increased sensitivity for missed pulmonary pathogens (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: An optimized mNGS assay for pulmonary microbes demonstrates significant inoculation of the lower airways of immunocompromised children with diverse bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Potential pathogens can be identified based on absolute and relative abundance. Ongoing investigation is needed to determine the pathogenic significance of outlier microbes in the lungs of immunocompromised children with pulmonary disease

    Film Review: Morning Comes so Soon

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    Perilous Pearling: a Japanese Junk that Never Made it Home

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    Three Beaches: The Death of Greg Dening

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    Book Review: Into the Country of Standing Men

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    Concrete and Coral

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    Stories, meanings, and memories between Japan, America, and Oceania that converge on the filmmaker's childhood home in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands
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