1,017 research outputs found

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for typing of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: performance analysis and outbreak investigation.

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    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium (VREfm), are causing nosocomial infections and outbreaks. Bacterial typing methods are used to assist in outbreak investigations. Most of them, especially genotypic methods like multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), whole genome sequencing (WGS), or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, are quite expensive and time-consuming. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy assesses the biochemical composition of bacteria, such as carboxyl groups in polysaccharides. It is an affordable technique and has a faster turnaround time. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate FT-IR spectroscopy for VREfm outbreak investigations. Basic performance requirements like reproducibility and the effects of incubation time were assessed in distinct sample sets. After determining a FT-IR spectroscopy cut-off range, the clustering agreement between FT-IR and WGS within a retrospective (n: 92 isolates) and a prospective outbreak (n: 15 isolates) was investigated. For WGS an average nucleotide identity (ANI) cut-off score of 0.999 was used. Basic performance analysis showed reproducible results. Moreover, FT-IR spectroscopy readouts showed a high agreement with WGS-ANI analysis in clinical outbreak investigations (V-measure 0.772 for the retrospective and 1.000 for the prospective outbreak). FT-IR spectroscopy had a higher discriminatory power than MLST in the outbreak investigations. After determining cut-off values to achieve optimal resolution, FT-IR spectroscopy is a promising technique to assist in outbreak investigation as an affordable, easy-to-use tool with a turnaround time of less than one day. IMPORTANCE Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium (VREfm), are a frequent cause of nosocomial outbreaks. Several bacterial typing methods are used to track transmissions and investigate outbreaks, whereby genome-based techniques are used as a gold standard. Current methods are either expensive, time-consuming, or both. Additionally, often, specifically trained staff needs to be available. This study provides insight into the use of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, an affordable, easy-to-use tool with a short turnaround time as a typing method for VREfm. By assessing clinical samples, this work demonstrates promising results for species discrimination and reproducibility. FT-IR spectrosopy shows a high level of agreement in the analysis of VREfm outbreaks in comparison with whole genome sequencing-based methods

    Bacterial but no SARS-CoV-2 contamination after terminal disinfection of tertiary care intensive care units treating COVID-19 patients

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    BACKGROUND In intensive care units (ICUs) treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) invasive ventilation poses a high risk for aerosol and droplet formation. Surface contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or bacteria can result in nosocomial transmission. METHODS Two tertiary care COVID-19 intensive care units treating 53 patients for 870 patient days were sampled after terminal cleaning and preparation for regular use to treat non-COVID-19 patients. RESULTS A total of 176 swabs were sampled of defined locations covering both ICUs. No SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) was detected. Gram-negative bacterial contamination was mainly linked to sinks and siphons. Skin flora was isolated from most swabbed areas and Enterococcus faecium was detected on two keyboards. CONCLUSIONS After basic cleaning with standard disinfection measures no remaining SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected. Bacterial contamination was low and mainly localised in sinks and siphons

    Search for direct stau production in events with two hadronic tau-leptons in root s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for the direct production of the supersymmetric partners ofτ-leptons (staus) in final stateswith two hadronically decayingτ-leptons is presented. The analysis uses a dataset of pp collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of139fb−1, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LargeHadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant deviation from the expected StandardModel background is observed. Limits are derived in scenarios of direct production of stau pairs with eachstau decaying into the stable lightest neutralino and oneτ-lepton in simplified models where the two staumass eigenstates are degenerate. Stau masses from 120 GeV to 390 GeV are excluded at 95% confidencelevel for a massless lightest neutralino

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector