4,271 research outputs found

    Diboson studies at CMS

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    Measurements of diboson processes in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7TeV and 8TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC are summarized. Inclusive cross section measurements are performed in the leptonic decay modes ZZ → 2l2l', Wγ → lνγ, Zγ → llγ, Zγ → ννγ, W+W− → lνlν, and the semileptonic decay mode WW + WZ → lνjj, where l = e, μ and l' = e, μ, τ . Cross section for ZZ (W+W−) production is measured at √s = 7TeV and 8TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb−1 (4.9 fb−1) and 5.3 fb−1 (3.5 fb−1√ ), respectively. Production of Wγ, Zγ, Zγ, and WW+WZ are measured at √s = 7TeV using data of 5.0 fb−1. A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive W+W− production by two-photon exchange in the leptonic decay mode WW → eνμν, at √s = 7TeV is performed using data of 5.0 fb−1. All measured cross sections are in agreement with NLO expectations. Inclusive diboson channels are used to extract upper limits on anomalous WWγ, WWZ, ZZγ, Zγγ, ZZZ trilinear gauge couplings. Limits on charged couplings are competitive to limits provided by previous experiments while neutral couplings limits are few times more precise. Exclusive W+W− channel is used to extract the limits on anomalous γγWW quartic gauge coupling, set at the LHC for the first time and resulting in the sensitivity two orders of magnitude better then limits provided by LEP experiments

    Discovery of High-Latitude CO in a HI Supershell in NGC 5775

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    We report the discovery of very high latitude molecular gas in the edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 5775. Emission from both the J=1-0 and 2-1 lines of 12CO is detected up to 4.8 kpc away from the mid-plane of the galaxy. NGC 5775 is known to host a number of HI supershells. The association of the molecular gas M(H2,F2) = 3.1x10^7 solar masses reported here with one of the HI supershells (labeled F2) is clear, which suggests that molecular gas may have survived the process which originally formed the supershell. Alternatively, part of the gas could have been formed in situ at high latitude from shock-compression of pre-existing HI gas. The CO J=2-1/J=1-0 line ratio of 0.34+-40% is significantly lower than unity, which suggests that the gas is excited subthermally, with gas density a few times 100 cubic cm. The molecular gas is likely in the form of cloudlets which are confined by magnetic and cosmic rays pressure. The potential energy of the gas at high latitude is found to be 2x10^56 ergs and the total (HI + H2) kinetic energy is 9x10^53 ergs. Based on the energetics of the supershell, we suggest that most of the energy in the supershell is in the form of potential energy and that the supershell is on the verge of falling and returning the gas to the disk of the galaxy.Comment: Accept by ApJL, 4 pages, 3 ps figure

    Patients' preferences for adjuvant endocrine therapy in early breast cancer: what makes it worthwhile?

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    Adjuvant endocrine therapy improves recurrence and survival rates, but has side effects and is inconvenient. The aim of this study was to determine the preferences of premenopausal women who had adjuvant endocrine therapy in a randomised trial. In all, 85 (or eighty-five) women completed semistructured interviews 6–30 months after finishing adjuvant endocrine therapy. Hypothetical scenarios based on known potential survival times (5 or 15 years) and rates (60% or 80% at 5 years) without adjuvant endocrine therapy were used to determine the smallest gains women judged necessary to make their adjuvant endocrine therapy worthwhile. Although a third of the women considered gains of 1% in survival rates or 6 months in survival times sufficient to make their adjuvant endocrine therapy worthwhile, more than half the women required gains of at least 5% in survival rates or 3 years in survival time as necessary to make adjuvant endocrine therapy worthwhile. Larger benefits were required by women who had longer treatment, worse side effects, and by those who were treated with goserelin alone. The route of administration (tablet vs injection) did not affect preferences and some women judged small benefits sufficient to make their adjuvant endocrine therapy worthwhile, but many women required larger benefits than their counterparts in similar studies of preferences for adjuvant chemotherapy

    Clusters of Extragalactic Ultra Compact HII Regions

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    We report on the detection of optically thick free-free radio sources in the galaxies M33, NGC 253, and NGC 6946 using data in the literature. We interpret these sources as being young, embedded star birth regions, which are likely to be clusters of ultracompact HII regions. All 35 of the sources presented in this article have positive radio spectral indices alpha>0 suggesting an optically thick thermal bremsstrahlung emission arising in the HII region surrounding hot stars. Energy requirements indicate a range of a several to >500 O7V star equivalents powering each HII region. Assuming a Salpeter IMF, this corresponds to integrated stellar masses of 0.1--60,000 Msun. For roughly half of the sources in our sample, there is no obvious optical counterpart, giving further support for their deeply embedded nature. Their luminosities and radio spectral energy distributions are consistent with HII regions having electron densities from 1500 cm^-3 to 15000 cm^-3 and radii of 1 - 7 pc. We suggest that the less luminous of these sources are extragalactic ultracompact HII region complexes, those of intermediate luminosity are similar to W49 in the Galaxy, while the brightest will be counterparts to 30 Doradus. These objects constitute the lower mass range of extragalactic ``ultradense HII regions'' which we argue are the youngest stages of massive star cluster formation yet observed. This sample is beginning to fill in the continuum of objects between small associations of ultracompact HII regions and the massive extragalactic clusters that may evolve into globular clusters.Comment: 37 pages, uses AASTeX; scheduled to appear in ApJ v. 559 October 2001. Full postscript version available from http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~chip/Papers/Johnson_Kobulnicky_etal_ApJ559.ps.g

    Spatially-resolved Thermal Continuum Absorption against the Supernova Remnant W49B

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    We present sub-arcminute resolution imaging of the Galactic supernova remnant W49B at 74 MHz (25") and 327 MHz (6"), the former being the lowest frequency at which the source has been resolved. While the 327 MHz image shows a shell-like morphology similar to that seen at higher frequencies, the 74 MHz image is considerably different, with the southwest region of the remnant almost completely attenuated. The implied 74 MHz optical depth (~ 1.6) is much higher than the intrinsic absorption levels seen inside two other relatively young remnants, Cas A and the Crab Nebula, nor are natural variations in the relativistic electron energy spectra expected at such levels. The geometry of the absorption is also inconsistent with intrinsic absorption. We attribute the absorption to extrinsic free-free absorption by a intervening cloud of thermal electrons. Its presence has already been inferred from the low-frequency turnover in the integrated continuum spectrum and from the detection of radio recombination lines toward the remnant. Our observations confirm the basic conclusions of those measurements, and our observations have resolved the absorber into a complex of classical HII regions surrounded either partially or fully by low-density HII gas. We identify this low-density gas as an extended HII region envelope (EHE), whose statistical properties were inferred from low resolution meter- and centimeter-wavelength recombination line observations. Comparison of our radio images with HI and H_2CO observations show that the intervening thermal gas is likely associated with neutral and molecular material as well.Comment: 18 pages, LaTeX with AASTeX-5, 5 figures in 7 PostScript files; accepted for publication in the Ap

    High Latitude Radio Emission in a Sample of Edge-On Spiral Galaxies

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    We have mapped 16 edge-on galaxies at 20 cm using the VLA. For 5 galaxies, we could form spectral index, energy and magnetic field maps. We find that all but one galaxy show evidence for non-thermal high latitude radio continuum emission, suggesting that cosmic ray halos are common in star forming galaxies. The high latitude emission is seen over a variety of spatial scales and in discrete and/or smooth features. In general, the discrete features emanate from the disk, but estimates of CR diffusion lengths suggest that diffusion alone is insufficient to transport the particles to the high latitudes seen (> 15 kpc in one case). Thus CRs likely diffuse through low density regions and/or are assisted by other mechanisms (e.g. winds). We searched for correlations between the prevalence of high latitude radio emission and a number of other properties, including the global SFR, supernova input rate per unit star forming, and do not find clear correlations with any of these properties.Comment: 40 pages of text, 3 figures, 6 tables, and an appendix of 21 jpeg figures (which is a radio continuum catalogue of 17 galaxies). to appear in A. J. (around January 1999

    High resolution radio continuum survey of M33: I. The radio maps

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    We study the exponential scale length of total radio emission, the spectral index distribution, and the linear radio polarization in the Scd galaxy M33. Observations were carried out using the 3.6 cm dual channel and the 6.2 cm four channel receivers of the 100--m Effelsberg telescope along with the L-band VLA D--array at 20 cm. High spatial resolution and sensitivity in both total and linearly polarized radio continuum emission from M33 were achieved. We found considerable extended emission, not only from the main arms I S and I N, but also from the weaker arms. The large--scale magnetic field exhibits well--ordered spiral structure with almost the same orientation as that of the optical spiral arms, however, it does not show a clear structural correlation or anti--correlation with the optical arms. There is a north-south asymmetry in polarization that is frequency-dependent. We found that the ring mean spectral index versus radius increases faster beyond RR = 4 kpc. At each wavelength, the exponential scale length is larger inside than outside RR = 4 kpc. From the larger scales lengths at RR << 4 kpc, we conclude that star forming regions are mainly spread over the region RR << 4 kpc without a dominant nuclear concentration. Furthermore, at RR << 4 kpc, a spatial correlation between cosmic rays and star forming regions may exist. From the behaviour of the mean spectral indices obtained from different pairs of the radio continuum data at 3.6, 6.2, and 20 cm, we confirm that a decrease in the thermal fraction causes an increase in the spectral index. The frequency-dependent asymmetry in the polarization hints to an asymmetry in Faraday depolarization.Comment: 16 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in the Astronomy and Astrophysics Journa

    High-Resolution, Wide-Field Imaging of the Galactic Center Region at 330 MHz

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    We present a wide field, sub-arcminute resolution VLA image of the Galactic Center region at 330 MHz. With a resolution of ~ 7" X 12" and an RMS noise of 1.6 mJy/beam, this image represents a significant increase in resolution and sensitivity over the previously published VLA image at this frequency. The improved sensitivity has more than tripled the census of small diameter sources in the region, has resulted in the detection of two new Non Thermal Filaments (NTFs), 18 NTF candidates, 30 pulsar candidates, reveals previously known extended sources in greater detail, and has resulted in the first detection of Sagittarius A* in this frequency range. A version of this paper containing full resolution images may be found at http://lwa.nrl.navy.mil/nord/AAAB.pdf.Comment: Astronomical Journal, Accepted 62 Pages, 21 Figure

    Star formation in M33: Spitzer photometry of discrete sources

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    Combining the relative vicinity of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 with the Spitzer images, we investigate the properties of infrared (IR) emission sites and assess the reliability of the IR emission as a star formation tracer. The mid- and far-IR emission of M33 was obtained from IRAC and MIPS images from the Spitzer archive. We compared the photometric results for several samples of three known types of discrete sources (HII regions, supernovae remnants and planetary nebulae) with theoretical diagnostic diagrams, and derived the spectral energy distribution (from 3.6 to 24 micron) of each type of object. Moreover, we generated a catalogue of 24 micron sources and inferred their nature from the observed and theoretical colours of the known type sources. We estimated the star formation rate in M33 both globally and locally, from the IR emission and from the Halpha emission line. The colours of the typical IR emissions of HII regions, supernovae remnants and planetary nebulae are continuous among the different samples, with overlapping regions in the diagnostic diagrams. The comparison between the model results and the colours of HII regions indicates a dusty envelope at relatively high temperatures ~600 K, and moderate extinction Av < 10. The 24 micron sources IR colours follow the regions observationally defined by the three classes of known objects but the majority of them represent HII regions. The derived total IR luminosity function is in fact very similar to the HII luminosity function observed in the Milky Way and in other late type spirals. Even though our completeness limit is 5x10^37 ergs s-1, in low density regions we are able to detect sources five times fainter than this, corresponding to the faintest possible HII region. [abridged]Comment: 19 pages, 18 figures (low resolution), accepted for publication by A&A; corrected typo

    Detection of Sagittarius A* at 330 MHz with the Very Large Array

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    We report the detection of Sagittarius A*, the radio source associated with our Galaxy's central massive black hole, at 330 MHz with the Very Large Array. Implications for the spectrum and emission processes of Sagittarius A* are discussed and several hypothetical geometries of the central region are considered.Comment: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Accepte
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