1,654 research outputs found

    Seven years of experience with treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with a mechanical rotational chair

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    BACKGROUND: Throughout the last decade, several mechanical rotational chairs have been developed for diagnostics and treatment of patients with a typical case history of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Sparse evidence, however, exists in terms of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency with these mechanical rotational chairs. Also, recommendations for optimal use of these chairs are yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: Primary objective was to evaluate overall treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with a mechanical rotational chair and secondary objectives included description of patient- and BPPV characteristics, determination of subjective and objective outcomes, as well as analyzation of recurrence- and recurrence-related risk factors following successful treatment. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with 635 patients diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and treated by means of a mechanical rotational chair during a 7-year period from 2014 to 2021 at a tertiary University hospital. Patient- and disease-specific characteristics, treatment and recurrence data were collected through reviewing of patient records. RESULTS: The mean number of required treatments was 2.7 when accounting for a six percent treatment failure rate (defined as a need of more than 10 treatments), and 3.7 when not. Bilateral mono-canal affection required 3.8 treatments, unilateral multi-canal 3.5 treatments, and the combination of bilateral and multi-canal affection 5.2 treatments. All these scenarios were associated with significantly higher numbers of required treatments when compared to unilateral mono-canal affection, which required 1.9 treatments. The overall recurrence rate was 25.4 percent. CONCLUSION: A mechanical rotational chair provides successful treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Mechanical rotational chairs should primarily be reserved for the treatment of retractable and atypical benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patients. Many aspects of the optimal use of these chairs still require elaborative assessment

    Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

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    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM) as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1) automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2) mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3) be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.Comment: In Proceedings TAV-WEB 2010, arXiv:1009.330

    Burden of injury of serious road injuries in six EU countries

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    BACKGROUND: Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the RhĂ´ne region in France and Spain. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases. POPULATION: of study are patients hospitalized with MAIS3+ due to road traffic injuries. The burden of injury (expressed in years lived with disability (YLD)) is calculated applying a method that is developed within the INTEGRIS study. The method assigns estimated disability information to the casualties using the EUROCOST injury classification. RESULTS: The average burden per MAIS3+ casualty varies between 2.4 YLD and 3.2 YLD per casualty. About 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 19% to 33% of the MAIS3+ casualties. Head injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of MAIS3+ road traffic injuries. Results per transport mode differ between the countries. Differences between countries are mainly due to differences in age distribution and in the distribution over EUROCOST injury groups of the casualties. CONCLUSION: The analyses presented in this paper can support further improvement of road safety policy. Countermeasures could for example be focused at reducing skull and brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities, as these injuries are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties

    Extragalactic magnetic fields

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    Invited Poster presentato in remoto alla conferenza "The First Pietro Baracchi Conference: Italo-Australian Radio Astronomy in the Era of the SKA", 1-4 November 2016 — ARRC Building, Perth, Western Australi

    The evolutionary history of the Central Asian steppe-desert taxon Nitraria (Nitrariaceae) as revealed by integration of fossil pollen morphology and molecular data

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    The transition from a greenhouse to an icehouse world at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) coincided with a large decrease of pollen from the steppe-adapted genus Nitraria. This genus, now common along the Mediterranean coast, Asia and Australia, has a proposed coastal origin and a geographically widespread fossil record. Here we investigated the evolution, taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of Nitraria throughout the Cenozoic by integrating extant taxa and fossil palynological morphotypes into a unified phylogenetic framework based on both DNA sequences and pollen morphological data. We present the oldest fossil pollen grain of Nitraria, at least 53 Myr old. This fossil was found in Central Asian deposits, providing new evidence for its origin in this area. We found that the EOT is an evolutionary bottleneck for Nitraria, coinciding with retreat of the proto-Paratethys Sea, a major global cooling event and a turnover in Central Asian steppe vegetation. We infer the crown age of modern Nitraria spp. to be significantly younger (Miocene) than previously estimated (Palaeocene). The diversity trajectory of Nitraria inferred from extant-only taxa differs markedly from one that also considers extinct taxa. Our study demonstrates it is therefore critical to apply an integrative approach to fully understand the plant evolutionary history of Nitrariaceae.publishedVersio

    The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

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    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines for health-care providers supported by the World Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Early Nutrition Academy, and the Child Health Foundation are provided. The fetus and neonate should receive LC-PUFA in amounts sufficient to support optimal visual and cognitive development. Moreover, the consumption of oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy reduces the risk for early premature birth. Pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve an average daily intake of at least 200mg DHA. For healthy term infants, we recommend and fully endorse breastfeeding, which supplies preformed LC-PUFA, as the preferred method of feeding. When breastfeeding is not possible, we recommend use of an infant formula providing DHA at levels between 0.2 and 0.5 weight percent of total fat, and with the minimum amount of AA equivalent to the contents of DHA. Dietary LC-PUFA supply should continue after the first six months of life, but currently there is not sufficient information for quantitative recommendation

    Practical guidelines for the registration and monitoring of serious traffic injuries, D7.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Crashes also cause numerous serious traffic injuries, resulting in considerable economic and human costs. Given the burden of injury produced by traffic, using only fatalities as an indicator to monitor road safety gives a very small picture of the health impact of traffic crashes, just the tip of the iceberg. Moreover, in several countries during the last years the number of serious traffic injuries has not been decreasing as fast as the number of fatalities. In other countries the number of serious traffic injuries has even been increasing (Berecki-Gisolf et al., 2013; IRTAD Working Group on Serious Road Traffic Casualties, 2010; Weijermars et al., 2015).Therefore, serious traffic injuries are more commonly being adopted by policy makers as an additional indicator of road safety. Reducing the number of serious traffic injuries is one of the key priorities in the road safety programme 2011-2020 of the European Commission (EC, 2010). To be able to compare performance and monitor developments in serious traffic injuries across Europe, a common definition of a serious road injury was necessary. In January 2013, the High Level Group on Road Safety, representing all EU Member States, established the definition of serious traffic injuries as road casualties with an injury level of MAIS ≥ 3. The Maximum AIS represents the most severe injury obtained by a casualty according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Traditionally the main source of information on traffic accidents and injuries has been the police registration. This provides the official data for statistics at national and European level (CARE Database). Data reported by police usually is very detailed about the circumstances of the crash particularly if there are people injured or killed. But on the other hand police cannot assess the severity of injuries in a reliable way, due, obviously to their training. Therefore, police based data use to classify people involved in a crash as fatality, severe injured if hospitalised more than 24 hours and slight injured if not hospitalised. Moreover, it is known that even a so clear definition as a fatality is not always well reported and produces underreporting. This is due to several factors such as lack of coverage of police at the scene or people dying at hospital not followed by police (Amoros et al., 2006; Broughton et al., 2007; Pérez et al., 2006). Hospital records of patients with road traffic injuries usually include very little information on circumstances of the crash but it does contain data about the person, the hospitalisation (date of hospitalisation and discharge, medical diagnosis, mechanism or external cause of injury, and interventions). Hospital inpatient Discharge Register (HDR) offers an opportunity to complement police data on road traffic injuries. Medical diagnoses can be used to derive information about severity of injuries. Among others, one of the possible scales to measure injury severity is the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The High Level group identified three main ways Member States can collect data on serious traffic injuries (MAIS ≥ 3): 1) by applying a correction on police data, 2) by using hospital data and 3) by using linked police and hospital data. Once one of these three ways is selected, several additional choices need to be made. In order to be able to compare injury data across different countries, it is important to understand the effects of methodological choices on the estimated numbers of serious traffic injuries. A number of questions arise: How to determine the correction factors that are to be applied to police data? How to select road traffic casualties in the hospital data and how to derive MAIS ≥ 3 casualties? How should police and hospital data be linked and how can the number of MAIS ≥ 3 casualties be determined on the basis of the linked data sources? Currently, EU member states use different procedures to determine the number of MAIS ≥ 3 traffic injuries, dependent on the available data. Given the major differences in the procedures being applied, the quality of the data differs considerably and the numbers are not yet fully comparable between countries. In order to be able to compare injury data across different countries, it is important to understand the effects of methodological choices on the estimated numbers of serious traffic injuries. Work Package 7 of SafetyCube project is dedicated to serious traffic injuries, their health impacts and their costs. One of the aims of work package 7 is to assess and improve the estimation of the number of serious traffic injuries. The aim of this deliverable (D7.1) is to report practices in Europe concerning the reporting of serious traffic injuries and to provide guidelines and recommendations applied to each of the three main ways to estimate the number of road traffic serious injuries. Specific objectives for this deliverable are to: Describe the current state of collection of data on serious traffic injuries across Europe Provide practical guidelines for the estimation of the number of serious traffic injuries for each of the three ways identified by the High Level Group Examine how the estimated number of serious traffic injuries is affected by differences in methodology

    Danish study of Non-Invasive Testing in Coronary Artery Disease 3 (Dan-NICAD 3):study design of a controlled study on optimal diagnostic strategy

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    Introduction Current guideline recommend functional imaging for myocardial ischaemia if coronary CT angiography (CTA) has shown coronary artery disease (CAD) of uncertain functional significance. However, diagnostic accuracy of selective myocardial perfusion imaging after coronary CTA is currently unclear. The Danish study of Non-Invasive testing in Coronary Artery Disease 3 trial is designed to evaluate head to head the diagnostic accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using the tracers 82Rubidium (82Rb-PET) compared with oxygen-15 labelled water PET (15O-water-PET) in patients with symptoms of obstructive CAD and a coronary CT scan with suspected obstructive CAD.Methods and analysis This prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study will include approximately 1000 symptomatic patients without previous CAD. Patients are included after referral to coronary CTA. All patients undergo a structured interview and blood is sampled for genetic and proteomic analysis and a coronary CTA. Patients with possible obstructive CAD at coronary CTA are examined with both 82Rb-PET, 15O-water-PET and invasive coronary angiography with three-vessel fractional flow reserve and thermodilution measurements of coronary flow reserve. After enrolment, patients are followed with Seattle Angina Questionnaires and follow-up PET scans in patients with an initially abnormal PET scan and for cardiovascular events in 10 years.Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from Danish regional committee on health research ethics. Written informed consent will be provided by all study participants. Results of this study will be disseminated via articles in international peer-reviewed journal.Trial registration number NCT04707859
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