8,710 research outputs found

    Decentralized Constraint Satisfaction

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    We show that several important resource allocation problems in wireless networks fit within the common framework of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs). Inspired by the requirements of these applications, where variables are located at distinct network devices that may not be able to communicate but may interfere, we define natural criteria that a CSP solver must possess in order to be practical. We term these algorithms decentralized CSP solvers. The best known CSP solvers were designed for centralized problems and do not meet these criteria. We introduce a stochastic decentralized CSP solver and prove that it will find a solution in almost surely finite time, should one exist, also showing it has many practically desirable properties. We benchmark the algorithm's performance on a well-studied class of CSPs, random k-SAT, illustrating that the time the algorithm takes to find a satisfying assignment is competitive with stochastic centralized solvers on problems with order a thousand variables despite its decentralized nature. We demonstrate the solver's practical utility for the problems that motivated its introduction by using it to find a non-interfering channel allocation for a network formed from data from downtown Manhattan

    Early out-of-equilibrium beam-plasma evolution

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    We solve analytically the out-of-equilibrium initial stage that follows the injection of a radially finite electron beam into a plasma at rest and test it against particle-in-cell simulations. For initial large beam edge gradients and not too large beam radius, compared to the electron skin depth, the electron beam is shown to evolve into a ring structure. For low enough transverse temperatures, the filamentation instability eventually proceeds and saturates when transverse isotropy is reached. The analysis accounts for the variety of very recent experimental beam transverse observations.Comment: to appear in Phys. Rev. Letter

    A comparison of the quality of life of vulnerable young males with severe emotional and behaviour difficulties in a residential setting and young males in mainstream schooling: QoL of vulnerable young males

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    Accessible summary: The findings from this study reveal that the notion of anticipated and deleterious differences in quality of life (QoL) between children with severe emotional and behavioural problems and those without such difficulties is not supported. Indeed, results reveal counter-intuitive findings with children with emotional and behavioural problems reporting better QoL than those without such presenting problems on a number of QoL subscales. The type of QoL measure and related subscales appears to be sensitive to differing aspects of self-report QoL, with in some instances, some QoL subscales being more discriminatory between groups compared with other QoL subscales. Consequently, the choice of QoL measure is critically important in accurately and reliably determining QoL in children with significant emotional and behavioural problems. One hundred and seventy-four males completed a quality of life (QoL) assessment utilizing, a generic paediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL) and the short form (36) health survey (SF36). The adolescents aged 13-16 years were in a Scottish Centre for young males with social, emotional, behavioural and educational problems. To identify similarities and differences, a comparison group (n = 110) of males in the third and fourth year in a mainstream secondary school were also administered the PedsQL and the SF36 self-rating scales. The effectiveness of the PedsQL and the SF36 for assessing QoL for adolescent males was investigated. There were significant differences between the groups in the Centre and between the Centre groups and the comparison group in terms of their QoL. The results between the groups were found in the PedsQL subscales 'physical functioning' where secure > comparison (P = 0.04); secure > residential (P = 0.008); and PedsQL subscale 'social functioning' day > comparison (P = 0.026); secure > comparison (P = 0.037). SF36 subscales 'role physical functioning' secure > residential (P residential (P residential (P = 0.001). This study provides a unique insight into the complex dimensions influencing the QoL of this specific group of young people. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

    The Rotating Quantum Thermal Distribution

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    We show that the rigidly rotating quantum thermal distribution on flat space-time suffers from a global pathology which can be cured by introducing a cylindrical mirror if and only if it has a radius smaller than that of the speed-of-light cylinder. When this condition is met, we demonstrate numerically that the renormalized expectation value of the energy-momentum stress tensor corresponds to a rigidly rotating thermal bath up to a finite correction except on the mirror where there are the usual Casimir divergences.Comment: 8 pages, 2 PostScript figure

    Fully automated segmentation and tracking of the intima media thickness in ultrasound video sequences of the common carotid artery

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    Abstract—The robust identification and measurement of the intima media thickness (IMT) has a high clinical relevance because it represents one of the most precise predictors used in the assessment of potential future cardiovascular events. To facilitate the analysis of arterial wall thickening in serial clinical investigations, in this paper we have developed a novel fully automatic algorithm for the segmentation, measurement, and tracking of the intima media complex (IMC) in B-mode ultrasound video sequences. The proposed algorithm entails a two-stage image analysis process that initially addresses the segmentation of the IMC in the first frame of the ultrasound video sequence using a model-based approach; in the second step, a novel customized tracking procedure is applied to robustly detect the IMC in the subsequent frames. For the video tracking procedure, we introduce a spatially coherent algorithm called adaptive normalized correlation that prevents the tracking process from converging to wrong arterial interfaces. This represents the main contribution of this paper and was developed to deal with inconsistencies in the appearance of the IMC over the cardiac cycle. The quantitative evaluation has been carried out on 40 ultrasound video sequences of the common carotid artery (CCA) by comparing the results returned by the developed algorithm with respect to ground truth data that has been manually annotated by clinical experts. The measured IMTmean ± standard deviation recorded by the proposed algorithm is 0.60 mm ± 0.10, with a mean coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.05%, whereas the corresponding result obtained for the manually annotated ground truth data is 0.60 mm ± 0.11 with a mean CV equal to 5.60%. The numerical results reported in this paper indicate that the proposed algorithm is able to correctly segment and track the IMC in ultrasound CCA video sequences, and we were encouraged by the stability of our technique when applied to data captured under different imaging conditions. Future clinical studies will focus on the evaluation of patients that are affected by advanced cardiovascular conditions such as focal thickening and arterial plaques

    Decentralised Learning MACs for Collision-free Access in WLANs

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    By combining the features of CSMA and TDMA, fully decentralised WLAN MAC schemes have recently been proposed that converge to collision-free schedules. In this paper we describe a MAC with optimal long-run throughput that is almost decentralised. We then design two \changed{schemes} that are practically realisable, decentralised approximations of this optimal scheme and operate with different amounts of sensing information. We achieve this by (1) introducing learning algorithms that can substantially speed up convergence to collision free operation; (2) developing a decentralised schedule length adaptation scheme that provides long-run fair (uniform) access to the medium while maintaining collision-free access for arbitrary numbers of stations

    Development and testing of the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) cm and mm wavelength occultation instrument

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    We present initial results from testing a new remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). ATOMMS is designed as a satellite-to-satellite occultation system for monitoring climate. We are developing the prototype instrument for an aircraft to aircraft occultation demonstration. Here we focus on field testing of the ATOMMS instrument, in particular the remote sensing of water by measuring the attenuation caused by the 22 GHz and 183 GHz water absorption lines. Our measurements of the 183 GHz line spectrum along an 820 m path revealed that the AM 6.2 spectroscopic model provdes a much better match to the observed spectrum than the MPM93 model. These comparisons also indicate that errors in the ATOMMS amplitude measurements are about 0.3%. Pressure sensitivity bodes well for ATOMMS as a climate instrument. Comparisons with a hygrometer revealed consistency at the 0.05 mb level, which is about 1% of the absolute humidity. Initial measurements of absorption by the 22 GHz line made along a 5.4 km path between two mountaintops captured a large increase in water vapor similar to that measured by several nearby hygrometers. A storm passage between the two instruments yielded our first measurements of extinction by rain and cloud droplets. Comparisons of ATOMMS 1.5 mm opacity measurements with measured visible opacity and backscatter from a weather radar revealed features simultaneously evident in all three datasets confirming the ATOMMS measurements. The combined ATOMMS, radar and visible information revealed the evolution of rain and cloud amounts along the signal path during the passage of the storm. The derived average cloud water content reached typical continental cloud amounts. These results demonstrated a significant portion of the information content of ATOMMS and its ability to penetrate through clouds and rain which is critical to its all-weather, climate monitoring capability

    Deformation of a nearly hemispherical conducting drop due to an electric field: theory and experiment

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    We consider, both theoretically and experimentally, the deformation due to an electric field of a pinned nearly-hemispherical static sessile drop of an ionic fluid with a high conductivity resting on the lower substrate of a parallel plate capacitor. Using both numerical and asymptotic approaches we find solutions to the coupled electrostatic and augmented Young–Laplace equations which agree very well with the experimental results. Our asymptotic solution for the drop interface extends previous work in two ways, namely to drops that have zero-field contact angles that are not exactly π/2 and to higher order in the applied electric field, and provides useful predictive equations for the changes in the height, contact angle and pressure as functions of the zero-field contact angle, drop radius, surface tension and applied electric field. The asymptotic solution requires some numerical computations, and so a surprisingly accurate approximate analytical asymptotic solution is also obtained