144 research outputs found

    Joint Port Selection Based Channel Acquisition for FDD Cell-Free Massive MIMO

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    In frequency division duplexing (FDD) cell-free massive MIMO, the acquisition of the channel state information (CSI) is very challenging because of the large overhead required for the training and feedback of the downlink channels of multiple cooperating base stations (BSs). In this paper, for systems with partial uplink-downlink channel reciprocity, and a general spatial domain channel model with variations in the average port power and correlation among port coefficients, we propose a joint-port-selection-based CSI acquisition and feedback scheme for the downlink transmission with zero-forcing precoding. The scheme uses an eigenvalue-decomposition-based transformation to reduce the feedback overhead by exploring the port correlation. We derive the sum-rate of the system for any port selection. Based on the sum-rate result, we propose a low-complexity greedy-search-based joint port selection (GS-JPS) algorithm. Moreover, to adapt to fast time-varying scenarios, a supervised deep learning-enhanced joint port selection (DL-JPS) algorithm is proposed. Simulations verify the effectiveness of our proposed schemes and their advantage over existing port-selection channel acquisition schemes.Comment: 30 pages, 9 figures. The paper has been submitted to IEEE journal for possible publicatio

    Styrene-assisted maleic anhydride grafted poly(lactic acid) as an effective compatibilizer for wood flour/poly(lactic acid) bio-composites

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    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of styrene-assisted maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid) (PLA-g-St/MAH) on the interfacial properties of wood flour/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) bio-composites. PLA-g-St/MAH was synthesized by free-radical melt grafting using styrene as a comonomer and dicumyl peroxide as an initiator. The structure of PLA-g-St/MAH was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by compression molding using PLA-g-St/MAH as a compatibilizer. The effects of PLA-g-St/MAH on the rheological and mechanical properties, as well as on the fractured surface morphology of the composites were investigated. Results indicated that storage modulus, complex viscosity, equilibrium torque, and shear heat were significantly increased. The mechanical properties of the wood flour/PLA composites were also significantly increased after the addition of PLA-g-St/MAH. The maximum values were achieved at the loading rate of 3 wt % because of the improved interfacial adhesion between the wood flour and the PLA matrix

    The retropharyngeal reduction plate for atlantoaxial dislocation: a finite element analysis

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    Objective: To investigate the biomechanical properties of the retropharyngeal reduction plate by comparing the traditional posterior pedicle screw-rod fixation by finite element analysis.Methods: Two three-dimensional finite element digital models of the retropharyngeal reduction plate and posterior pedicle screw-rod fixation were constructed and validated based on the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) data from C1 to C4. The biomechanical finite element analysis values of two internal fixations were measured and calculated under different conditions, including flexion, extension, bending, and rotation.Results: In addition to the backward extension, there was no significant difference in the maximum von Mises stress between the retropharyngeal reduction plate and posterior pedicle screw fixation under other movement conditions. The retropharyngeal reduction plate has a more uniform distribution under different conditions, such as flexion, extension, bending, and rotation. The stress tolerance of the two internal fixations was basically consistent in flexion, extension, left bending, and right bending.Conclusion: The retropharyngeal reduction plate has a relatively good biomechanical stability without obvious stress concentration under different movement conditions. It shows potential as a fixation option for the treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation

    Retrieving Soil and Vegetation Temperatures From Dual-Angle and Multipixel Satellite Observations

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    Land surface component temperatures (LSCTs), i.e., the temperatures of soil and vegetation, are important parameters in many applications, such as estimating evapotranspiration and monitoring droughts. However, the multiangle algorithm is affected due to different spatial resolution between nadir and oblique views. Therefore, we propose a combined retrieval algorithm that uses dual-angle and multipixel observations together. The sea and land surface temperature radiometer onboard ESA\u27s Sentinel-3 satellite allows for quasi-synchronous dual-angle observations, from which LSCTs can be retrieved using dual-angle and multipixel algorithms. The better performance of the combined algorithm is demonstrated using a sensitivity analysis based on a synthetic dataset. The spatial errors in the oblique view due to different spatial resolution can reach 4.5 K and have a large effect on the multiangle algorithm. The introduction of multipixel information in a window can reduce the effect of such spatial errors, and the retrieval results of LSCTs can be further improved by using multiangle information for a pixel. In the validation, the proposed combined algorithm performed better, with LSCT root mean squared errors of 3.09 K and 1.91 K for soil and vegetation at a grass site, respectively, and corresponding values of 3.71 K and 3.42 K at a sparse forest site, respectively. Considering that the temperature differences between components can reach 20 K, the results confirm that, in addition to a pixel-average LST, the combined retrieval algorithm can provide information on LSCTs. This article demonstrates the potential of utilizing additional information sources for better LSCT results, which makes the presented combined strategy a promising option for deriving large-scale LSCT products

    Levo-tetrahydropalmatine inhibits the acquisition of ketamine-induced conditioned place preference by regulating the expression of ERK and CREB phosphorylation in rats

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    Abstract Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid purified from the Chinese herbs Corydalis and Stephania and has been used in many traditional Chinese herbal preparations for its sedative, analgesic and hypnotic properties. Previous studies demonstrated that l-THP has antagonistic activity on dopamine receptors; thus, it may have potential therapeutic effects on drug abuse. However, whether l-THP affects ketamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of l-THP on the rewarding behavior of ketamine through CPP. Results revealed that ketamine (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) induced CPP in rats. Furthermore, Ketamine (10 mg/kg) promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus (Hip) and caudate putamen (CPu), but not in the prefrontal cortex (PFc). l-THP (20 mg/kg) co-administered with ketamine during conditioning inhibited the acquisition of ketamine-induced CPP in rats. Furthermore, l-THP (20 mg/kg) prevented the enhanced phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in CPu and Hip. These results suggest that l-THP has potential therapeutic effects on ketamine-induced CPP. The underlying molecular mechanism may be related to its inhibitory effect on ERK and CREB phosphorylation in Hip and CPu. The present data supports the potential use of l-THP for the treatment of ketamine addiction

    Effect of thyroid hormone replacement treatment on cardiac diastolic function in adult patients with subclinical hypothyroidism: a meta-analysis

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    BackgroundAlthough subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is related to abnormalities in left ventricular diastolic function, the use of levothyroxine as a regular treatment remains debatable. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy affects cardiac diastolic function in patients with SCH as measured by echocardiography.MethodsThis meta-analysis included a search of the EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from their inception to May 18, 2023, for studies analyzing cardiac morphology and functional changes in patients with SCH before and after thyroid hormone replacement. The outcome measures were cardiac morphology and diastolic and overall cardiac function, as assessed using ultrasound parameters (including ventricular wall thickness, chamber size, mitral wave flow, tissue Doppler, and speckle tracking). The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. The standard mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models.ResultsSeventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 568 patients participated and completed the follow-up. All studies specifically stated that serum thyrotropin levels returned to normal by the end of the study period. Compared with baseline levels, no significant morphological changes were observed in the heart. In terms of diastolic function, we discovered that the ratios of E-velocity to A-velocity (E/A) had greatly improved after thyroid hormone replacement therapy, whereas the ratios of the mitral inflow E wave to the tissue Doppler e’ wave (E/e’) had not. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) increased significantly after treatment with levothyroxine.ConclusionIn adult patients with SCH, thyroid hormone supplementation can partially but not completely improve parameters of diastolic function during the observation period. This meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 statement, an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews (11) and was registered with INPLASY (INPLASY202320083).Systematic review registrationhttps://inplasy.com/inplasy-2023-2-0083

    Biomechanical evaluation of different posterior fixation techniques for treating thoracolumbar burst fractures of osteoporosis old patients: a finite element analysis

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    Objective: To investigate the biomechanical characteristics of different posterior fixation techniques in treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar burst fractures by finite element analysis.Methods: The Dicom format images of T10-L5 segments were obtained from CT scanning of a volunteer, and transferred to the Geomagic Studio software, which was used to build digital models. L1 osteoporotic burst fracture and different posterior fixation techniques were simulated by SolidWorks software. The data of ROM, the maximum displacement of fixed segment, ROM of fractured L1 vertebrae, the stress on the screws and rods as well as on fractured L1 vertebrae under different movement conditions were collected and analysed by finite element analysis.Results: Among the four groups, the largest ROM of fixed segment, the maximum displacement of fixed segment and ROM of fractured vertebrae occurred in CBT, and the corresponding data was 1.3°, 2.57 mm and 1.37°, respectively. While the smallest ROM of fixed segment, the maximum displacement of fixed segment and ROM of fractured vertebrae was found in LSPS, and the corresponding data was 0.92°, 2.46 mm and 0.89°, respectively. The largest stress of screws was 390.97 Mpa, appeared in CBT, and the largest stress of rods was 84.68 MPa, appeared in LSPS. The stress concentrated at the junction area between the root screws and rods. The maximum stress on fractured vertebrae was 93.25 MPa, appeared in CBT and the minimum stress was 56.68 MPa, appeared in CAPS. And the stress of fractured vertebrae concentrated in the middle and posterior column of the fixed segment, especially in the posterior edge of the superior endplate.Conclusion: In this study, long-segment posterior fixation (LSPF) provided with the greatest stability of fixed segment after fixation, while cortical bone screw fixation (CBT) provided with the smallest stability. Cement-augmented pedicle screw-rod fixation (CAPS) and combined using cortical bone screw and pedicle screw fixation (CBT-PS) provided with the moderate stability. CBT-PS exhibited superiority in resistance of rotational torsion for using multiple connecting rods. CAPS and CBT-PS maybe biomechanically superior options for the surgical treatment of burst TL fractures in osteoporotic patients