15 research outputs found

    Comparative efficacy of two fipronil spot-on formulations against experimental tick infestations (Ixodes ricinus) in dogs

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    A parallel-group-design, randomized, unicentre and blinded controlled study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of a new fipronil-based spot-on formulation applied once to dogs against experimental Ixodes ricinus infestations. Six dogs served as negative controls (group 1), six dogs served as positive controls (group 2) receiving the original fipronil spot-on (Frontline¬ģ spot-on Dog, Merial) at a dosage of 0.67¬†mL for a dog weighing from 2 to 10¬†kg and 1.34¬†mL for a dog weighing from 10.1 to 20¬†kg and six dogs were treated with a 10% w/v fipronil-based spot-on solution (Effipro¬ģ Spot-on, Virbac SA) at an identical dosage (group 3, 0.67 mL for a dog weighing from 2 to 10 kg and 1.34 mL for a dog weighing from 10.1 to 20 kg). Each dog was sedated and subsequently infested with 50 unfed adult I. ricinus on days‚ÄČ‚ąí7, ‚ąí2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Forty-eight hours after the treatment and 48¬†h after each challenge (days ‚ąí5, 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37), the population of the remaining ticks was assessed for each animal. Geometric mean tick counts obtained were reduced by 99% and 94% on day‚ÄČ2 in groups 2 and 3, respectively, compared to the negative control group. Dogs were protected from re-infestations with an efficacy of >90% for 3¬†weeks in group 2 and for 5¬†weeks in group 3. Both 10% w/v fipronil-based spot-on solutions, despite different vehicles, were equally able to eradicate tick infestation, to prevent new infestations and were equally well tolerated

    Geometric morphometrics defines shape differences in the cortical area map of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred mice

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    BACKGROUND: We previously described planar areal differences in adult mouse visual, somatosensory, and neocortex that collectively discriminated C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred strain identity. Here we use a novel application of established methods of two-dimensional geometric morphometrics to examine shape differences in the cortical area maps of these inbred strains. RESULTS: We used Procrustes superimposition to align a reliable set of landmarks in the plane of the cortical sheet from tangential sections stained for the cytochrome oxidase enzyme. Procrustes superimposition translates landmark configurations to a common origin, scales them to a common size, and rotates them to minimize an estimate of error. Remaining variation represents shape differences. We compared the variation in shape between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J relative to that within each strain using a permutation test of Goodall's F statistic. Significant differences in shape in the posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF), as well as differences in shape across primary sensory areas, characterize the cortical area maps of these common inbred, isogenic strains. CONCLUSION: C57BL/6J and DBA/2J have markedly different cortical area maps, in both size and shape. These differences suggest polymorphism in genetic factors underlying cortical specification, even between common isogenic strains. Comparing cortical phenotypes between normally varying inbred mice or between genetically modified mice can identify genetic contributions to cortical specification. Geometric morphometric analysis of shape represents an additional quantitative tool for the study of cortical development, regardless of whether it is studied from phenotype to gene or gene to phenotype

    Imaging Flow Cytometry Elucidates Limitations of Microparticle Analysis by Conventional Flow Cytometry

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    Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles released from cell membranes in response to activation, cell injury, or apoptosis. The clinical importance of MPs has become increasingly recognized, although no standardized method exists for their measurement. Flow cytometry (FCM) is the most commonly used technique, however, because of the small size of MPs, and the limitations of current FCM instrumentation, accurate identification is compromised by this methodology. We decided to investigate whether the use of FCM combined with imaging, such as is possible with the ImagestreamX imaging FC (ISX), would be a more sensitive approach to characterizing MPs. Combining FCM with imaging eliminates some of the limitations demonstrated by conventional FCM, whereas also providing morphological confirmation and the ability to distinguish true single events from aggregates and cell debris. The detection limit of standard nonspecialized FCM is suboptimal when compared to ISX. Evaluating MPs below 0.200 mm and sizing remain a challenge as some MPs remain below the detection limit of ISX. Standardized calibrators, that more closely reflect the physical characteristics of MPs, need further development. (C) 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometr

    Children’s psychological and behavioral responses following pediatric intensive care unit hospitalization: the caring intensively study

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    Abstract Background Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) hospitalization places children at increased risk of persistent psychological and behavioral difficulties following discharge. Despite tremendous advances in medical technology and treatment regimes, approximately 25% of children demonstrate negative psychological and behavioral outcomes within the first year post-discharge. It is imperative that a broader array of risk factors and outcome indicators be explored in examining long-term psychological morbidity to identify areas for future health promotion and clinical intervention. This study aims to examine psychological and behavioral responses in children aged 3 to 12¬†years over a three year period following PICU hospitalization, and compare them to children who have undergone ear, nose and/or throat (ENT) day surgery. Methods/Design This mixed-methods prospective cohort study will enrol 220 children aged 3 to 12¬†years during PICU hospitalization (study group, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ110) and ENT day surgery hospitalization (comparison group, n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ110). Participants will be recruited from 3 Canadian pediatric hospitals, and followed for 3¬†years with data collection points at 6¬†weeks, 6¬†months, 1¬†year, 2¬†years and 3¬†years post-discharge. Psychological and behavioral characteristics of the child, and parent anxiety and parenting stress, will be assessed prior to hospital discharge, and again at each of the 5 subsequent time points, using standardized measures. Psychological and behavioral response scores for both groups will be compared at each follow-up time point. Multivariate regression analysis will be used to adjust for demographic and clinical variables at baseline. To explore baseline factors predictive of poor psychological and behavioral scores at 3¬†years among PICU patients, correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression will be used. A subgroup of 40 parents of study group children will be interviewed at years 1 and 3 post-discharge to explore their perceptions of the impact of PICU hospitalization on their children and enhance our understanding of findings generated from standardized measures in the larger cohort study. An interpretive descriptive approach will guide qualitative data collection and analysis. Discussion This study aims to generate new information regarding the magnitude and duration of psychological and behavioral disturbances among children admitted to PICUs, potentially leading to remedial or preventive interventions

    Long-term neurological symptoms after acute COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization in adult patients: insights from the ISARIC-COVID-19 follow-up study

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    in this study we aimed to characterize the type and prevalence of neurological symptoms related to neurological long-COVID-19 from a large international multicenter cohort of adults after discharge from hospital for acute COVID-19

    Characteristics and outcomes of an international cohort of 600‚Ää000 hospitalized patients with COVID-19

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    Background: We describe demographic features, treatments and clinical outcomes in the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 cohort, one of the world's largest international, standardized data sets concerning hospitalized patients. Methods: The data set analysed includes COVID-19 patients hospitalized between January 2020 and January 2022 in 52 countries. We investigated how symptoms on admission, co-morbidities, risk factors and treatments varied by age, sex and other characteristics. We used Cox regression models to investigate associations between demographics, symptoms, co-morbidities and other factors with risk of death, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Results: Data were available for 689‚Ää572 patients with laboratory-confirmed (91.1%) or clinically diagnosed (8.9%) SARS-CoV-2 infection from 52 countries. Age [adjusted hazard ratio per 10‚ÄČyears 1.49 (95% CI 1.48, 1.49)] and male sex [1.23 (1.21, 1.24)] were associated with a higher risk of death. Rates of admission to an ICU and use of IMV increased with age up to age 60 years then dropped. Symptoms, co-morbidities and treatments varied by age and had varied associations with clinical outcomes. The case-fatality ratio varied by country partly due to differences in the clinical characteristics of recruited patients and was on average 21.5%. Conclusions: Age was the strongest determinant of risk of death, with a ‚ąľ30-fold difference between the oldest and youngest groups; each of the co-morbidities included was associated with up to an almost 2-fold increase in risk. Smoking and obesity were also associated with a higher risk of death. The size of our international database and the standardized data collection method make this study a comprehensive international description of COVID-19 clinical features. Our findings may inform strategies that involve prioritization of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who have a higher risk of death

    Paediatric COVID-19 mortality: a database analysis of the impact of health resource disparity

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    Background The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric populations varied between high-income countries (HICs) versus low-income to middle-income countries (LMICs). We sought to investigate differences in paediatric clinical outcomes and identify factors contributing to disparity between countries.Methods The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 database was queried to include children under 19 years of age admitted to hospital from January 2020 to April 2021 with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. Univariate and multivariable analysis of contributing factors for mortality were assessed by country group (HICs vs LMICs) as defined by the World Bank criteria.Results A total of 12‚ÄČ860 children (3819 from 21 HICs and 9041 from 15 LMICs) participated in this study. Of these, 8961 were laboratory-confirmed and 3899 suspected COVID-19 cases. About 52% of LMICs children were black, and more than 40% were infants and adolescent. Overall in-hospital mortality rate (95% CI) was 3.3% [=(3.0% to 3.6%), higher in LMICs than HICs (4.0% (3.6% to 4.4%) and 1.7% (1.3% to 2.1%), respectively). There were significant differences between country income groups in intervention profile, with higher use of antibiotics, antivirals, corticosteroids, prone positioning, high flow nasal cannula, non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in HICs. Out of the 439 mechanically ventilated children, mortality occurred in 106 (24.1%) subjects, which was higher in LMICs than HICs (89 (43.6%) vs 17 (7.2%) respectively). Pre-existing infectious comorbidities (tuberculosis and HIV) and some complications (bacterial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome and myocarditis) were significantly higher in LMICs compared with HICs. On multivariable analysis, LMIC as country income group was associated with increased risk of mortality (adjusted HR 4.73 (3.16 to 7.10)).Conclusion Mortality and morbidities were higher in LMICs than HICs, and it may be attributable to differences in patient demographics, complications and access to supportive and treatment modalities
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