630 research outputs found

    Constructive solution of highly effective photoenergy module: development and experimental testing

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    Based on experimental study and computermodeling of working temperature influence on the efficiency of Chinese production silicon solar cells identified temperature dependence of efficiency shows the feasibility of using Chinese production Si-SC in the construction of photovoltaic thermal system, which together with the heat pump is part of a combined system for hot water supply, heating and air conditioning. Based on a detailed analysis of the working temperature influence on the efficiency of photovoltaic processes that determine the solar cells work, it has been developed the optimal construction and technological solution of hybrid solar generated module, the main feature ofwhich is the heat exchange block, designed to reduce the solar cells working temperature. The experimental testing of hybrid modules samples equipped with developed cooling system, high-voltage part of power take-off system demonstrates their reliability and high efficiency which allow to achieve the such module efficiency up to 18.5 %.На основе экспериментального исследования в комплексе с компьютерным моделированием влияния рабочей температуры на эффективность кремниевых солнечных элементов китайского производства выявлена температурная зависимость их эффективности. Температурная зависимость показывает целесообразность использования солнечных элементов китайского производства в составе фотоэлектрической тепловой системы, которая вместе с тепловым насосом является частью комбинированной системы горячего водоснабжения, отопления и кондиционирования воздуха. На основе детального анализа влияния рабочей температуры на эффективность фотоэлектрических процессов, определяющих работу солнечных элементов, было разработано оптимальное конструктивно-технологическое решение гибридного солнечного генерирующего модуля, основной особенностью которого является теплообменный блок, предназначен для снижения рабочей температуры солнечных элементов. Экспериментальные испытания образцов таких модулей, оснащенных разработанной системой охлаждения и высоковольтной системой отбора мощности, демонстрируют их надежность и высокую эффективность, позволяющие достичь КПД гибридного модуля до 18,5 %

    Current Issues of International Legal Regulation of the Use of Unmanned Technologies in Railway Transport within the EAEU

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    This study is aimed to determine current trends in the development of international legal regulation of the use of unmanned technologies in rail transport related to the implementation of digital services and technologies of Industry 4.0 both in the transport and logistics ecosystem of Russia and in the regional international transport systems.Aim. To determine the level of development and effectiveness of the existing set of regulations governing the use of unmanned technologies in rail transport within the EAEC.Tasks. To analyze the existing body of normative legal acts regulating the specified sphere, to identify gaps in the existing regulation of unmanned technologies in the railway transport.Methods. Using the method of comparative legal analysis and the formal-legal method, this paper analyzes the existing legal regulation of unmanned technologies in rail transport within the EAEC, identifies the gaps in legislation and indicates the main directions of its development to create a regulatory framework that allows the effective regulation of the introduction and operation of unmanned technologies on the railroads of the Eurasian Economic Union.Results. The study showed that at present the legal regulation of unmanned technologies in the railway transport is at the initial stage of development. The existing regulatory framework regulates automated and remote control technologies for railroad transport is insufficient, while the level of technology development in the railway sphere allows the introduction of unmanned locomotives to improve the level of competitiveness of the industry. Given the ongoing integration processes and the high level of interconnection between the transport and logistics systems of the EAEU member states, the development of a unified legal regulation of the use of unmanned technologies on the railroad should take place at the international level within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. All the more so because technical regulations defining the requirements for the safe operation of rolling stock and railway infrastructure are currently being developed and implemented at the level of the EAEU. The experience of creating a unified approach to technical requirements in the industry is a positive basis for the formation of regulations for the introduction of innovations that meet the level of the technological mode of Industry 4.0.Conclusion. The main directions for the development of legal regulation of the use of unmanned technologies should be to ensure the safety of the use of unmanned technologies by establishing criteria for their evaluation, testing and certification systems, as well as developing principles of liability for damage caused to life, health and property of third parties in the transportation process due to error, malfunction or imperfection of this kind of technology

    Ergatic dynamic control systems

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    Synthesis and analysis of systems containing a man in their control circuits are considered. The concepts of ergonomics and ergatic systems are defined, and tasks and problems of ergonomics are outlined. The synthesis of the structure of an astronautic ergatic organism is presented, as well as the synthesis of nonstationary ergatic systems. Problems of selecting the criteria for complex systems are considered, and the results are presented from a study of ergatic control systems with any degree of human participation

    ІНФОРМАЦІЙНА ТЕХНОЛОГІЯ КОРОТКОСТРОКОВОГО ПРОГНОЗУВАННЯ ПЕРВИННОЇ ІНВАЛІДНОСТІ В УКРАЇНІ

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    The information technology of primary disability forecasting in Ukraine is developed. It is based on combined using of short-term forecasting adapt methods.Разработана информационная технология прогнозирования первичной инвалидности в Украине на основе комплексного применения адаптивных методов краткосрочного прогнозирования.Розроблено інформаційну технологію прогнозування первинної інвалідності в Україні на базі комплексного застосування адаптивних методів короткострокового прогнозування

    Cultural Volunteering of University Students: Assessment of Participation Experience and Potential for Development

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    Russian universities in recent years are increasingly positioned as centers for the development of Russian regions. As part of their third mission, universities are beginning to be included in the socio-cultural development of the territories. In these processes, student social initiatives and sociocultural projects with their participation are playing an increasingly important role both for the students themselves and their self-realization, and for the Russian regions in the context of increasing their sustainability. The article was based on the materials of two studies: monitoring of the students of the Sverdlovsk region and a survey of the youth of the Sverdlovsk region, implemented in 2020. The authors explore the experience of social participation of university students in the Sverdlovsk region, their involvement in the practice of volunteering in the cultural sphere. The purpose of this article is to characterize the volunteer experience of students in the field of culture, to assess the potential of youth cultural volunteering in the context of solving urgent problems of universities as regional development centers. The authors record an increase in the proportion of students involved in volunteering on a regular basis, with a sufficiently large number of those who, after a one-time participation, are not ready to help in specific volunteer practices. The article deals with groups of students with and without experience of volunteering in the field of culture. The authors prove that students with experience in cultural volunteering are more interested in it and are really involved in the cultural life of their cities. The potential for the development of volunteer activity among a wider range of students lies in the increased interest of young people in major cultural events. The social participation of students in the eventful cultural agenda of cities and regions can increase the competencies of young professionals that are in demand, while it works to form the social responsibility of universities. The identified characteristics of the cultural volunteering of youth in the Sverdlovsk region are also inherent in other Russian regions

    Theoretical and experimental substantiation of receiving a pharmaceutical composition in the form of a cryogel with lidocain hydrochloride and decametoxin

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    Modern medicines for the treatment of wounds are developed on the basis of knowledge about their phase healing. The main principle of wound treatment is the creation and maintenance of a moist environment, stable temperature, absorption of excess exudate, minimization of the risk of sensitization, increased intervals between dressings, easy removal of coatings from the surface of the wound. The implementation of this principle is the basis of our research on the creation of a cryogel – a supermacroporous hydrogel that is formed at subzero temperatures by polymerization of monomers or cryogel formation of oligomers without the use of toxic organic solvents and with controlled textural and structural characteristics. A comprehensive study of cryogels has like theoretical as practical interest, because they can serve as a perspectiving new material in pharmacy for obtaining new medicines. The purpose of our research was to substantiate the composition of the cryogel with lidocaine hydrochloride and decamethoxine based on the conducted pharmacotechnological, physicochemical and biopharmaceutical research methods. Model samples (№№ 1–10) with different contents of lidocaine hydrochloride, decamethoxine, and auxiliary substances were selected as research objects. Pharmacotechnological, physicochemical and biopharmaceutical research methods were used. The technological and biopharmaceutical factors of development pharmaceutical composition in the form of a cryogel with lidocaine hydrochloride and decamethoxine were studied. Based on the results of the research, we found that samples (№№ 1–10) are homogeneous without signs of delamination, no changes are observed (aggregation of particles, sediment, odor). Samples №№ 3, 9 and 10 differ in the presence/absence of API. It was shown that APIs do not affect the absorption capacity of the studied samples. Comparative studies confirm our assumption that the presence of PG in the cryogel increases the absorption of liquid by the samples. The prolongation of the action in the composition depends on the presence of PG in the sample of composition. The prolonged effect of pharmaceutical composition was established. For further research, sample № 10 (lidocaine hydrochloride – 0.4; decamethoxine – 0.03; PVA 15% – 20.0; PG – 10.0) was chosen

    Rheological studies of some model samples of bases for manufacturing soft drugs

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    Wound treatment is complex and differentiated depending on the nature and origin of the wound. Comprehensive treatment of wounds includes both local and general therapeutic measures. Local and general wound healing complement each other and accelerate the achievement of a positive result. Local treatment of wounds is carried out with antiseptics according to the phases of the wound process. Not only medical but also pharmaceutical components are important in the development of a drug for the treatment of wounds, in particular the compliance of a mild drug to the phase of the wound process. The aim of the work was to study the structural and mechanical properties of some model bases for the creation of a mild antimicrobial drug for the treatment of wound processes. The object of the study were model samples of bases made on the basis of polymers (gel) and emulsions of the first kind (oil/water) – cream. In order to create stable emulsions, the surfactant N 1 emulsifier in the maximum amount of 8% and vaseline oil – up to 20% were selected. 10 model samples in the form of gel (samples 1–5) and cream (samples 6–10) were processed and rheological studies were performed. Measurement of rheological parameters of ointment bases was performed using a rotary viscometer Reotest-2 according to the method of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. Based on the research, it was found that the samples of cream and gel bases belong to the dispersed structured systems, which are characterized by elastic-plastic-viscous properties. Model bases are dispersed systems with coagulation type structure. It is proved that all model samples have a non-Newtonian type of flow. Their fluidity begins after the application of a certain mechanical stress. Lubrication and extrusion of tubes characterize the consumer properties of the samples. It is shown that the flow curves fit within the rheological optimum, which allows us to conclude that the test specimens are satisfactorily lubricated and extruded from tubes. Based on the conducted rheological studies, it was found that the presented model samples can be used as carriers for the creation of pharmaceutical compositions with active pharmaceutical ingredients. The prospects of this study are the study of structural and mechanical parameters of model samples – thixotropy, mechanical stability

    Магнитные свойства в пластически деформированном никель-титановом сплаве

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    Ni–Ti alloy has been intensively studied over the past decades. The unique properties of the alloy have allowed using it as a structural material for the creation of instruments and devices in various fields of science and technology, including mechanical engineering, aerospace, instrumentation. Measuring magnetic hysteresis loop is shown that after the deformation of the alloy having ferromagnetic properties. According to the equilibrium phase diagram, the alloys of Ni–Ti at a Ti content above 10 at. % is non-ferromagnetic. Due to lowering of the crystal phase symmetry with a cubic lattice the magnetization appears. In this work we have investigated the magnetic properties and the structure of deformed Ni51Ti49 samples by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. In Ni51Ti49 samples after plastic deformation the lenticular crystals containing bending contours with a high concentration of internal stresses were found. Bending contours indicate a large distortion of the crystal lattice. The curvature of the crystal lattice occurs due to the large displacements of the atoms. As a result, it can be formed and icosahedral cluster with the structure of the Frank–Kasper. An icosahedron is a twelve vertex polyhedron, which is denoted by FK-12. Furthermore, the crystal can be formed in other Frank–Kasper structures, e. g., FK-16. FK-16 is a sixteen vertex polyhedron with atom located in the center of the cluster. Indexing paintings electron diffraction and X-ray showed that the alloy phase of the Ni–Ti coexist with the structure Ti2Ni and Ni4Ti3. For explaining the possibility of the appearance of magnetization in Ni–Ti alloy samples spin-polarized electron density of states and magnetic moments Ni10Ti6 clusters (FK-16), Ni7Ti5 (FK-12) alloy Ni51Ti49 for electrons with different spin projections: “up” and “down” was calculated. The calculation by the scattered waves (RF) was performed. The results of calculation can be seen that the total electron density of nickel tends to zero faster than the density of titanium. Also shows that nickel becomes negative spin density in the area of r = 3.25–6.7 a. u. and titanium for r > 4.5 a. u. This may result depending on the value of the interatomic distances and to the effects ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetic in order to establish a magnetic clusters. The spectra show a high density of states near the Fermi level that is a characteristic feature of metals, besides there is an increase in the magnetization of the alloy during deformation. The calculations showed that the investigated clusters, not susceptible to deformation, also have a magnetic moment (the average magnetic moment per atom cluster FK-12, is about 1,0 μB, and for the FK-16 is about 0.3 μB. Overall, however, the average magnetic moment is zero, due to the absence of a preferred direction (the chaotic distribution of clusters) for the alloy. However, if the cluster is subjected to tension, the compensation of the magnetic moments of clusters occurs in the alloy, since there is allocated for all atoms direction due to deformation. At the same time, the average magnetic moments of the atoms in the cluster for the Deformed increase to 1.6 μB and 0.8 μB respectively for the FK-12 and FK-16

    Making room for volunteer participation in managing public affairs: A russian experience

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    In 2018, the United Nations Volunteers organization recognized that the governmental support for volunteering is a superior public management practice, offering the much-needed fuel for the integration of volunteering in politics, law-making, and social planning at the government level. The present article analyzes the current situation of governmental support for volunteering at federal, regional, and local levels of public administration in the Russian Federation as a precondition for making coproduction of public services possible. The analysis is based on the scrutiny of documents, a questionnaire survey of Russian volunteers, and an expert poll of public servants and nonprofit organizations (NPO) leaders. The analysis of the state policy of support for volunteering is carried out with respect to the following parameters: the awareness and evaluation of national measures of the governmental support for volunteering, as well as the evaluation of informational, financial, consulting, and organizational measures to support volunteer organizations by regional and municipal civil servants. In a country such as the Russian Federation, where volunteering is a relatively young social phenomenon, public administration needs not only to provide support, but also to administer transformation processes toward sustainable development, relying on the partnership and resources volunteers bring for effectively managing public life. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 20-011-00471.The research was supported by Act 211 Government of the Russian Federation, contract № 02.A03.21.0006

    Elongation of confined ferrofluid droplets under applied fields

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    Ferrofluids are strongly paramagnetic liquids. We study the behavior of ferrofluid droplets confined between two parallel plates with a weak applied field parallel to the plates. The droplets elongate under the applied field to reduce their demagnetizing energy and reach an equilibrium shape where the magnetic forces balance against the surface tension. This elongation varies logarithmically with aspect ratio of droplet thickness to its original radius, in contrast to the behavior of unconfined droplets. Experimental studies of a ferrofluid/water/surfactant emulsion confirm this prediction.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev.
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