334 research outputs found

    Erratum to: Nonribosomal peptide synthetases and their biotechnological potential in Penicillium rubens(Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology DOI: 10.1093/jimb/kuab045)

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    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases and their biotechnological potential in Penicillium rubens, https://doi.org/10.1093/jimb/ kuab045. The originally published manuscript was erroneously within the incorrect issue of Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. This should be published within Vol 48, Issue 9–10, December 2021, instead of Vol 48, Issue 7–8 August 2021. This is now corrected online

    Transcriptional Activation of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Filamentous Fungi

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    Filamentous fungi are highly productive cell factories, many of which are industrial producers of enzymes, organic acids, and secondary metabolites. The increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes revealed a vast and unexplored biosynthetic potential in the form of transcriptionally silent secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Various strategies have been carried out to explore and mine this untapped source of bioactive molecules, and with the advent of synthetic biology, novel applications, and tools have been developed for filamentous fungi. Here we summarize approaches aiming for the expression of endogenous or exogenous natural product BGCs, including synthetic transcription factors, assembly of artificial transcription units, gene cluster refactoring, fungal shuttle vectors, and platform strains

    Risk factors for adverse outcomes during mechanical ventilation of 1152 COVID-19 patients: a multicenter machine learning study with highly granular data from the Dutch Data Warehouse

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    Background: The identification of risk factors for adverse outcomes and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay in COVID-19 patients is essential for prognostication, determining treatment intensity, and resource allocation. Previous studies have determined risk factors on admission only, and included a limited number of predictors. Therefore, using data from the highly granular and multicenter Dutch Data Warehouse, we developed machine learning models to identify risk factors for ICU mortality, ventilator-free days and ICU-free days during the course of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The DDW is a growing electronic health record database of critically ill COVID-19 patients in the Netherlands. All adult ICU patients on IMV were eligible for inclusion. Transfers, patients admitted for less than 24 h, and patients still admitted at time of data extraction were excluded. Predictors were selected based on the literature, and included medication dosage and fluid balance. Multiple algorithms were trained and validated on up to three sets of observations per patient on day 1, 7, and 14 using fivefold nested cross-validation, keeping observations from an individual patient in the same split. Results: A total of 1152 patients were included in the model. XGBoost models performed best for all outcomes and were used to calculate predictor importance. Using Shapley additive explanations (SHAP), age was the most important demographic risk factor for the outcomes upon start of IMV and throughout its course. The relative probability of death across age values is visualized in Partial Dependence Plots (PDPs), with an increase starting at 54 years. Besides age, acidaemia, low P/F-ratios and high driving pressures demonstrated a higher probability of death. The PDP for driving pressure showed a relative probability increase starting at 12 cmH2O. Conclusion: Age is the most important demographic risk factor of ICU mortality, ICU-free days and ventilator-free days throughout the course of invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. pH, P/F ratio, and driving pressure should be monitored closely over the course of mechanical ventilation as risk factors predictive of these outcomes

    Large-scale ICU data sharing for global collaboration: the first 1633 critically ill COVID-19 patients in the Dutch Data Warehouse

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    Modular synthetic biology toolkit for filamentous fungi

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    Filamentous fungi are highly productive cell factories, often used in industry for the production of enzymes and small bioactive compounds. Recent years have seen an increasing number of synthetic-biology-based applications in fungi, emphasizing the need for a synthetic biology toolkit for these organisms. Here we present a collection of 96 genetic parts, characterized in Penicillium or Aspergillus species, that are compatible and interchangeable with the Modular Cloning system. The toolkit contains natural and synthetic promoters (constitutive and inducible), terminators, fluorescent reporters, and selection markers. Furthermore, there are regulatory and DNA-binding domains of transcriptional regulators and components for implementing different CRISPR-based technologies. Genetic parts can be assembled into complex multipartite assemblies and delivered through genomic integration or expressed from an AMA1-sequence-based, fungal-replicating shuttle vector. With this toolkit, synthetic transcription units with established promoters, fusion proteins, or synthetic transcriptional regulation devices can be more rapidly assembled in a standardized and modular manner for novel fungal cell factories

    Single-molecule analysis of dynamics and interactions of the SecYEG translocon

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    Protein translocation and insertion into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane are the essential processes mediated by the Sec machinery. The core machinery is composed of the membrane-embedded translocon SecYEG that interacts with the secretion-dedicated ATPase SecA and translating ribosomes. Despite the simplicity and the available structural insights on the system, diverse molecular mechanisms and functional dynamics have been proposed. Here, we employ total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to study the oligomeric state and diffusion of SecYEG translocons in supported lipid bilayers at the single-molecule level. Silane-based coating ensured the mobility of lipids and reconstituted translocons within the bilayer. Brightness analysis suggested that approx. 70% of the translocons were monomeric. The translocons remained in a monomeric form upon ribosome binding, but partial oligomerization occurred in the presence of nucleotide-free SecA. Individual trajectories of SecYEG in the lipid bilayer revealed dynamic heterogeneity of diffusion, as translocons commonly switched between slow and fast mobility modes with corresponding diffusion coefficients of 0.03 and 0.7 µm2·s−1. Interactions with SecA ATPase had a minor effect on the lateral mobility, while bound ribosome:nascent chain complexes substantially hindered the diffusion of single translocons. Notably, the mobility of the translocon:ribosome complexes was not affected by the solvent viscosity or macromolecular crowding modulated by Ficoll PM 70, so it was largely determined by interactions within the lipid bilayer and at the interface. We suggest that the complex mobility of SecYEG arises from the conformational dynamics of the translocon and protein:lipid interactions

    Author Correction:CRISPR-based transcriptional activation tool for silent genes in filamentous fungi (Scientific Reports, (2021), 11, 1, (1118), 10.1038/s41598-020-80864-3)

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    The Supplementary Information published with this Article contained errors. In Note S2, the text formatting including green italics, red bold, yellow underline, purple text and blue underline was omitted. The original Supplementary Information file is provided below. These errors have now been corrected in the Supplementary Information file that accompanies the original Article

    Cellular dynamics of the SecA ATPase at the single molecule level

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    In bacteria, the SecA ATPase provides the driving force for protein secretion via the SecYEG translocon. While the dynamic interplay between SecA and SecYEG in translocation is widely appreciated, it is not clear how SecA associates with the translocon in the crowded cellular environment. We use super-resolution microscopy to directly visualize the dynamics of SecA in Escherichia coli at the single-molecule level. We find that SecA is predominantly associated with and evenly distributed along the cytoplasmic membrane as a homodimer, with only a minor cytosolic fraction. SecA moves along the cell membrane as three distinct but interconvertible diffusional populations: (1) A state loosely associated with the membrane, (2) an integral membrane form, and (3) a temporarily immobile form. Disruption of the proton-motive-force, which is essential for protein secretion, re-localizes a significant portion of SecA to the cytoplasm and results in the transient location of SecA at specific locations at the membrane. The data support a model in which SecA diffuses along the membrane surface to gain access to the SecYEG translocon

    Synthetic control devices for gene regulation in Penicillium chrysogenum

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    Synthetic biology aims at controlled gene regulation that can lead to increased production of chemicals andpharmaceuticals. In this work synthetic control devices were developed for Penicillium chrysogenum, a modelfilamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory

    Synthetic control devices for gene regulation in Penicillium chrysogenum

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    BACKGROUND: Orthogonal, synthetic control devices were developed for Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. In the synthetic transcription factor, the QF DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor of the quinic acid gene cluster of Neurospora crassa is fused to the VP16 activation domain. This synthetic transcription factor controls the expression of genes under a synthetic promoter containing quinic acid upstream activating sequence (QUAS) elements, where it binds. A gene cluster may demand an expression tuned individually for each gene, which is a great advantage provided by this system. RESULTS: The control devices were characterized with respect to three of their main components: expression of the synthetic transcription factors, upstream activating sequences, and the affinity of the DNA binding domain of the transcription factor to the upstream activating domain. This resulted in synthetic expression devices, with an expression ranging from hardly detectable to a level similar to that of highest expressed native genes. The versatility of the control device was demonstrated by fluorescent reporters and its application was confirmed by synthetically controlling the production of penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of the control devices in microbioreactors, proved to give excellent indications for how the devices function in production strains and conditions. We anticipate that these well-characterized and robustly performing control devices can be widely applied for the production of secondary metabolites and other compounds in filamentous fungi
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