154 research outputs found

    Finanzierungssituation der deutschen Unternehmen: Finanzierungsschwierigkeiten trotz Wirtschaftsaufschwung?

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    Umfrageergebnisse deuten seit einiger Zeit auf eine leichte Verbesserung in der Kreditversorgung der Unternehmen hin. Indikatoren, wie die Eigenkapitalausstattung der Unternehmen und der Banken oder auch die Kreditausfallraten in den B√ľchern der Kreditinstitute, weisen dagegen noch nicht eindeutig darauf hin, dass die Effekte der Finanz- und Wirtschaftskrise √ľberwunden sind. Stefan Drews, Bundesministerium f√ľr Wirtschaft und Technologie, beleuchtet das auf den ersten Blick paradox erscheinende Ergebnis, dass viele Unternehmen gerade bei dem jetzt anlaufenden Konjunkturaufschwung √ľberhaupt erst in Finanzierungsschwierigkeiten geraten, und verdeutlicht, dass bei der jetzt zu f√ľhrenden Diskussion √ľber einen geplanten Ausstieg aus den Krisenbek√§mpfungsma√ünahmen nicht zu fr√ľh und √ľberhastet eine Entwarnung auf der Finanzierungsseite gegeben werden sollte. Erst im Laufe des Jahres 2011 wird sich verl√§sslich zeigen, ob die ersten Stabilisierungstendenzen robust genug sind, um f√ľr die Masse der deutschen Unternehmen auch in den n√§chsten Monaten gen√ľgend Kapital bereitzustellen.Unternehmen, Finanzierung, Kapitalstruktur, Finanzmarktkrise, Wirtschaftskrise

    Die Bundesländer vor dem finanziellen Kollaps: Wo Gefahr ist, wächst das Rettende auch

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    Seit der Steuersch√§tzung vom Mai 2003 ist die Finanzkrise in Deutschland nun auch amtlich. Bis zum Jahr 2007 werden mindestens 126 Mrd. ‚ā¨ Steuereinnahmen in den ohnehin schon knappen √∂ffentlichen Haushalten von Bund, L√§ndern und Gemeinden fehlen. Dass allerdings auch die Bundesl√§nder schon seit Jahren auf einen existenzgef√§hrdenden, finanz- und strukturpolitischen Abgrund zusteuern, ist bislang noch weitestgehend aus dem √∂ffentlichen Bewusstsein ausgeblendet, obwohl bereits seit zehn Jahren ein bedenklicher Trend zur Verschlechterung nahezu aller finanzwissenschaftlicher Kennziffern (z.B. R√ľckgang der Investitionsquoten der L√§nderhaushalte, Steigerung der Pro-Kopf-Verschuldung, der Zinslast- und Zinssteuerquote) in nahezu allen Bundesl√§ndern erkennbar ist. Im Jahr 2002 und auch in diesem Jahr wird ausschlie√ülich der Freistaat Bayern die Stabilit√§tskriterien von Maastricht erf√ľllen. Alle anderen 15 Bundesl√§nder m√ľssten mit mehr oder weniger scharfen Bu√ügeldern aus Br√ľssel rechnen. Aufgrund der Einengung des finanzpolitischen Spielraumes sollten die L√§nder, nach Ansicht von Prof. Dr. Norbert Berthold und Stefan Drews, Universit√§t W√ľrzburg, andere ihnen zur Verf√ľgung stehende Optionen - wie beispielsweise bildungspolitische Ma√ünahmen oder Verwaltungsreformen - nutzen, um Auswegsstrategien zu entwickeln, damit sie im Standortwettbewerb der Regionen mithalten k√∂nnen.Teilstaat, Finanzierung, Kommunale Finanzpolitik, Deutschland

    Nationaler Stabilit√§tspakt: Mehr Handlungsspielraum f√ľr L√§nder und Gemeinden?

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    In Deutschland wurde es in der Vergangenheit vers√§umt, den europ√§ischen Stabilit√§tspakt in einen nationalen Stabilit√§tspakt umzusetzen. Binnen weniger Jahre hat sich nun die finanzpolitische Situation der deutschen Gebietsk√∂rperschaften derart verschlechtert, dass fast alle Beteiligten Probleme mit einem nationalen Stabilit√§tspakt bekommen w√ľrden. Wie k√∂nnte ein nationaler Stabilit√§tspakt ausgestaltet werden? Was k√∂nnen wir vom nationalen Stabilit√§tspakt √Ėsterreichs lernen? --

    #Globalcitizen : An explorative Twitter analysis of global identity and sustainability communication

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    Unidad de excelencia María de Maeztu MdM-2015-0552(1) Background: global citizenship is often associated with pro-social and pro-environmental attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. Much of this research relies on questionnaire studies, whereas studies drawing on naturally occurring daily communications are under-used. In this paper, we analyse the content that users publish on Twitter related to the issue of global identity and citizenship. (2) Methods: we assessed word frequencies and associated hashtags of 35,237 tweets marked with the hashtag #globalcitizen. A sentiment analysis was conducted to investigate the moods and emotions of the tweets. (3) Results: in line with expectations derived from social identity theory, we found that associated words and hashtags were more often linked to themes of common good/disadvantaged groups than they were to the topic of nature and environment. Providing evidence for an empowerment function of global citizenship, the sentiment analysis suggests that global citizenship is related to rather positive emotions. (4) Conclusion: these findings reveal how identity constructions in social media predict associated contents and possibly pathways to social change

    Tackling the plastic problem : a review on perceptions, behaviors, and interventions

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    Unidad de excelencia María de Maeztu MdM-2015-0552The excessive production and consumption of plastic has serious consequences on the environment and human health. The reduction of plastic has therefore become a major global challenge. As technical solutions might be insufficient to curb the problem, a perspective highlighting the impact of human behavior is needed. The current literature review provides an overview of the existing social-scientific literature on plastic, ranging from risk awareness, consumers' preferences, and predictors of usage behavior to political and psychological intervention strategies. By reviewing the literature, we aim to identify potential factors for future interventions to reduce plastic consumption. The 187 studies reviewed show that people much appreciate and routinely use plastic, despite a pronounced awareness of the associated problems. Habits, norms, and situational factors seem to be especially predictive for plastic consumption behavior. Both political and psychological interventions are potentially effective, although long-term effects are often uncertain. The review closes with implications for behavior-based solutions and future research, which should combine interdisciplinary approaches and take into account cultural differences

    GEM: A short "Growth-vs-Environment" Module for survey research

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    Unidad de excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2019-000940-MAltres ajuts: Acord transformatiu CRUE-CSICSegmentation of survey respondents is a common tool in environmental communication as it helps to understand opinions of people and to deliver targeted messages. Prior research has segmented people based on their opinions about the relationship between economic growth and environmental sustainability. This involved an evaluation of 16 statements, which means considerable survey time and cost, particularly if administered by a third party, as well as cognitive burden on respondents, increasing the chance of incomplete responses. In this study, we apply a machine learning algorithm to results from past surveys among citizens and scientists to identify a robust, minimal set of questions that accurately segments respondents regarding their opinion on growth versus the environment. In particular, we distinguish three groups, called Green growth, Agrowth and Degrowth. To this end, we identify five perceptions, namely regarding 'environmental protection', 'public services', 'life satisfaction', 'stability' and 'development space'. Prediction accuracy ranges between 81% and 89% across surveys and opinion segments. We apply the proposed set of questions on growth-vs-environment to a new survey from 2020 to illustrate its use as an efficient instrument in future surveys

    Behavioral Interventions for Climate Mitigation in Developing Countries : Overview and Prospects

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    Unidad de excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2019-000940-MBehavioral interventions are increasingly being considered as useful complements of traditional climate-policy instruments. These interventions are so far mostly being studied and applied in high-income countries. Here, we examine their application to achieve carbon emissions reduction in low- and middle-income countries. This involves synthesizing evidence from meta-analyses and systematic reviews from developed countries and deriving general insights for developing countries. We also review evidence from primary studies in developing countries, organizing insights by major world regions. We discuss context dependence of findings, as well to what extent behavioral interventions are complementary to, and create synergies with, other policy instruments. We hope that the present overview serves as starting point to expand the currently small evidence base on climate-relevant behavioral interventions in developing countries. Suggestions are made how to move this research forward

    Octave bandwidth S- and C-band GaN-HEMT power amplifiers for future 5G communication

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    Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG gef√∂rderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zug√§nglich.This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively.In this contribution, a design methodology for octave-bandwidth power amplifiers (PA) for 5G communication systems using surface mount dual-flat-no-lead packaged gallium-nitride high-electron-mobility transistor devices is presented. Systematic source- and load-pull simulations have been used to find the optimum impedances across 75% fractional bandwidth for S- (1.9‚Äď4.2 GHz) and C-band (3.8‚Äď8.4 GHz) PAs. The harmonic impact is considered to improve the output power and efficiency of the PAs. Utilizing the characteristic behavior of the transistors leads to modified optimum fundamental load impedances for the low-frequency range, which have higher gain compared with high-frequency range, and minimize the influence of the higher harmonics. Continuous wave large-signal measurements of the realized S-Band PA show a power added efficiency (PAE) of more than 40% from 1.9‚Äď4.2 GHz and a flat power gain of 11 dB while achieving a saturated output power of 10 W. The measured performance of the C-Band PA demonstrates a delivered power between 3.5 and 5 W across the frequency range of 3.8‚Äď8.4 GHz. A flat power gain of around 9 ¬Ī 0.5 dB with 26‚Äď40% PAE is achieved

    Perceived fairness and public acceptability of carbon pricing : a review of the literature

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    Unidad de excelencia María de Maeztu MdM-2015-0552While carbon pricing is widely seen as a crucial element of climate policy and has been implemented in many countries, it also has met with strong resistance. We provide a comprehensive overview of public perceptions of the fairness of carbon pricing and how these affect policy acceptability. To this end, we review evidence from empirical studies on how individuals judge personal, distributional and procedural aspects of carbon taxes and cap-and-trade. In addition, we examine preferences for particular redistributive and other uses of revenues generated by carbon pricing and their role in instrument acceptability. Our results indicate a high concern over distributional effects, particularly in relation to policy impacts on poor people, in turn reducing policy acceptability. In addition, people show little trust in the capacities of governments to put the revenues of carbon pricing to good use. Somewhat surprisingly, most studies do not indicate clear public preferences for using revenues to ensure fairer policy outcomes, notably by reducing its regressive effects. Instead, many people prefer using revenues for 'environmental projects' of various kinds. We end by providing recommendations for improving public acceptability of carbon pricing. One suggestion to increase policy acceptability is combining the redistribution of revenue to vulnerable groups with the funding for environmental projects, such as on renewable energy
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