82 research outputs found

    Treatment of Mountains in Indian English Poetry

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    Literature is not only a mirror of (human) life but also of nature. Nature is one of the important aspects of this world. Without nature, human life or animal life is impossible. That much relevance nature has in this world. To some it is nothing; to some it is some objects; for some it is supreme like God. Wordsworth’s pantheism is well known. He could see God in various forms of nature. All people are not like him. C.N. Annadurai, one of the leaders of Tamil country said he could see God in the laughter of poor people. Nature includes its various forms like mountains, hills, rivers, ponds, seas, canals, waterways, fruits, flowers, trees etc. Many poets both Indian and foreign have sung of these as their themes in their poetry. Mountain is also taken for treatment in poetry, drama, novel and short story. Mountains not only guard a country like India where, on the northern side, the Himalayas is like a wall giving protection to the people of India. They are the birth place for many a river. Indian poets have taken mountains / hills also for treatment in their poems. The present paper analyses some poets’ treatment of mountains in their writings

    A Study of the Portrayal of Animals in the selected Indian Writing in English Poems

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    Animals are the part and parcel of human life so in literature. Indian authors in most of the languages have represented different kinds of animals sometimes in negative and other time in positive ways. In literature it has been seen that most of the genres have represented animals in different forms. Various names of studies are prevalent related to animal studies. Anthropocentrism studies human beings as the center of the whole universe. It deciphers the importance of other creators in the universe. Ecocentrism studies nature and environment as the key to life on the Earth. Animals like, cow, horse, buffalo, tigers, bird, dog, cat, elephant, pig, bull, dear sheep, calf and many more have been represented since the emergence of literary practices. This paper aims to provide a brief note on how animals have been represented in the poetic expressions

    Oncogenic cooperation between TCF7-SPI1 and NRAS(G12D) requires β-catenin activity to drive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Spi-1 Proto-Oncogene (SPI1) fusion genes are recurrently found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases but are insufficient to drive leukemogenesis. Here we show that SPI1 fusions in combination with activating NRAS mutations drive an immature T-ALL in vivo using a conditional bone marrow transplant mouse model. Addition of the oncogenic fusion to the NRAS mutation also results in a higher leukemic stem cell frequency. Mechanistically, genetic deletion of the β-catenin binding domain within Transcription factor 7 (TCF7)-SPI1 or use of a TCF/β-catenin interaction antagonist abolishes the oncogenic activity of the fusion. Targeting the TCF7-SPI1 fusion in vivo with a doxycycline-inducible knockdown results in increased differentiation. Moreover, both pharmacological and genetic inhibition lead to down-regulation of SPI1 targets. Together, our results reveal an example where TCF7-SPI1 leukemia is vulnerable to pharmacological targeting of the TCF/β-catenin interaction

    Management of Massive Arterial Hemorrhage After Pancreatobiliary Surgery: Does Embolotherapy Contribute to Successful Outcome?

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    Massive arterial hemorrhage is, although unusual, a life-threatening complication of major pancreatobiliary surgery. Records of 351 patients who underwent major surgery for malignant pancreatobiliary disease were reviewed in this series. Thirteen patients (3.7%) experienced massive hemorrhage after surgery. Complete hemostasis by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) or re-laparotomy was achieved in five patients and one patient, respectively. However, 7 of 13 cases ended in fatality, which is a 54% mortality rate. Among six survivors, one underwent selective TAE for a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery (RHA). Three patients underwent TAE proximal to the proper hepatic artery (PHA): hepatic inflow was maintained by successful TAE of the gastroduodenal artery in two and via a well-developed subphrenic artery in one. One patient had TAE of the celiac axis for a pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery (SPA), and hepatic inflow was maintained by the arcades around the pancreatic head. One patient who experienced a pseudoaneurysm of the RHA after left hemihepatectomy successfully underwent re-laparotomy, ligation of RHA, and creation of an ileocolic arterioportal shunt. In contrast, four of seven patients with fatal outcomes experienced hepatic infarction following TAE proximal to the PHA or injury of the common hepatic artery during angiography. One patient who underwent a major hepatectomy for hilar bile duct cancer had a recurrent hemorrhage after TAE of the gastroduodenal artery and experienced hepatic failure. In the two patients with a pseudoaneurysm of the SPA or the superior mesenteric artery, an emergency re-laparotomy was required to obtain hemostasis because of worsening clinical status. Selective TAE distal to PHA or in the SPA is usually successful. TAE proximal to PHA must be restricted to cases where collateral hepatic blood flow exists. Otherwise or for a pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery, endovascular stenting, temporary creation of an ileocolic arterioportal shunt, or vascular reconstruction by re-laparotomy is an alternative

    Microarray analysis identifies a set of CXCR3 and CCR2 ligand chemokines as early IFNβ-responsive genes in peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro: an implication for IFNβ-related adverse effects in multiple sclerosis

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    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients discontinue interferon-beta (IFNβ) treatment due to various adverse effects, most of which emerge at the early phase after initiation of the treatment and then diminish with time. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying IFNβ-related adverse effects remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify a comprehensive list of early IFNβ-responsive genes (IRGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that may play a key role in induction of adverse effects. METHODS: Total RNA of PBMC exposed to 50 ng/ml recombinant human IFNβ for 3 to 24 hours in vitro was processed for cDNA microarray analysis, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Among 1,258 genes on the array, IFNβ elevated the expression of 107 and 87 genes, while it reduced the expression of 22 and 23 genes at 3 and 24 hours, respectively. Upregulated IRGs were categorized into conventional IFN-response markers, components of IFN-signaling pathways, chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and their receptors, regulators of apoptosis, DNA damage, and cell cycle, heat shock proteins, and costimulatory and adhesion molecules. IFNβ markedly upregulated CXCR3 ligand chemokines (SCYB11, SCYB10 and SCYB9) chiefly active on effector T helper type 1 (Th1) T cells, and CCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYA8 and SCYA2) effective on monocytes, whereas it downregulated CXCR2 ligand chemokines (SCYB2, SCYB1 and IL8) primarily active on neutrophils. CONCLUSION: IFNβ immediately induces a burst of gene expression of proinflammatory chemokines in vitro that have potential relevance to IFNβ-related early adverse effects in MS patients in vivo

    Ageing, Muscle Power and Physical Function: A Systematic Review and Implications for Pragmatic Training Interventions.

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    BACKGROUND: The physiological impairments most strongly associated with functional performance in older people are logically the most efficient therapeutic targets for exercise training interventions aimed at improving function and maintaining independence in later life. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review were to (1) systematically review the relationship between muscle power and functional performance in older people; (2) systematically review the effect of power training (PT) interventions on functional performance in older people; and (3) identify components of successful PT interventions relevant to pragmatic trials by scoping the literature. METHODS: Our approach involved three stages. First, we systematically reviewed evidence on the relationship between muscle power, muscle strength and functional performance and, second, we systematically reviewed PT intervention studies that included both muscle power and at least one index of functional performance as outcome measures. Finally, taking a strong pragmatic perspective, we conducted a scoping review of the PT evidence to identify the successful components of training interventions needed to provide a minimally effective training dose to improve physical function. RESULTS: Evidence from 44 studies revealed a positive association between muscle power and indices of physical function, and that muscle power is a marginally superior predictor of functional performance than muscle strength. Nine studies revealed maximal angular velocity of movement, an important component of muscle power, to be positively associated with functional performance and a better predictor of functional performance than muscle strength. We identified 31 PT studies, characterised by small sample sizes and incomplete reporting of interventions, resulting in less than one-in-five studies judged as having a low risk of bias. Thirteen studies compared traditional resistance training with PT, with ten studies reporting the superiority of PT for either muscle power or functional performance. Further studies demonstrated the efficacy of various methods of resistance and functional task PT on muscle power and functional performance, including low-load PT and low-volume interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Maximal intended movement velocity, low training load, simple training methods, low-volume training and low-frequency training were revealed as components offering potential for the development of a pragmatic intervention. Additionally, the research area is dominated by short-term interventions producing short-term gains with little consideration of the long-term maintenance of functional performance. We believe the area would benefit from larger and higher-quality studies and consideration of optimal long-term strategies to develop and maintain muscle power and physical function over years rather than weeks

    Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study

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    BACKGROUND: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. METHODS: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. RESULTS: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future

    Molecular orbital studies, frequency and solvent dependent NLO properties of (2E)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one

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    FTIR and FT-Raman spectrum of (2E)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (BP4NP) have been recorded in the region 4000−400 cm−1 and 4000−50 cm−1, respectively. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state have been calculated by using B3LYP/6-31+G (d) and CAM-B3LYP/ 6-31+G (d) basis sets. The vibrational frequencies have been calculated and compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. NBO analysis has been performed in order to demonstrate charge transfer or conjugative interaction and delocalization of electron density within the molecule. The electronic absorption spectra have been investigated by the TD-DFT methods. Besides, the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (LUMO) and energy difference (HOMO–LUMO) between the frontier molecular orbitals, reactive descriptors and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) have been performed. The static and dynamic (frequency) average polarizability (α), first- and second- order hyperpolarizabilities (β and γ) have been investigated by using the CAM-B3LYP method. The solvent effects on the polarizability (α), first- and second- order hyperpolarizabilities (β and γ) have also been evaluated by IEFPCM model. The results display significant second- and third-order molecular nonlinearity of the title compound

    Social Discrimination in Bhabani Bhattacharya’s So Many Hungers

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    This article offers an in-depth analysis of suffering and social discrimination as a central theme in Bhabani Bhattacharya’s So Many Hungers. The novel portrays different types of socio-gender discrimination and his characters seem to be at war with both the self and society. India must reorient her national life on a new social basis where woman has to sacrifice her comforts in the social rebirth of India. It emphasizes the author’s nuanced portrayal of the Indian society during the tumultuous period of the Bengal Famine and the Quit India movement against the backdrop of World War II. Bhattacharya’s narrative unveils the complex layers of discrimination present within the society, accentuated by the crisis. The article commences by explicating the socio-economic disparities highlighted in the novel, examining Bhattacharya’s critique of the British colonial government and the elite Indian class. Bhattacharya astutely intertwines these inequalities with the plight of the famine victims, illuminating the juxtaposition between excessive affluence and abject poverty. The author makes a minute scrutiny of the prevailing caste system, elucidating how it perpetuates the vicious cycle of discrimination. Bhattacharya’s female characters, often victims of societal norms and expectations, expose the prevalent gender biases. However, they also emerge as symbols of resilience, defying their ordained roles in an oppressive system. The article argues that Bhattacharya uses this setting to indicate that freedom from colonial rule must accompany freedom from socio-cultural biases for India to truly progress. The study also depicts how a woman plays a role of a bridge between culture, custom and conventions. It tries to pose a testimony to the lasting relevance and power of his writing in contemporary discussions on social equity and justice. The innocent preys of hunger grab the role of hunters and try to explore the different reactions and the changed attitude for the same. This paper traces out the cause of human suffering and their possible remedies through a sensitive understanding of the problem of the contemporary Indian society