246 research outputs found

    Twisted modules for vertex operator algebras

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    This contribution is mainly based on joint papers with Lepowsky and Milas, and some parts of these papers are reproduced here. These papers further extended works by Lepowsky and by Milas. Following our joint papers, I explain the general principles of twisted modules for vertex operator algebras in their powerful formulation using formal series, and derive general relations satisfied by twisted and untwisted vertex operators. Using these, I prove new "equivalence" and "construction" theorems, identifying a set of sufficient conditions in order to have a twisted module for a vertex operator algebra, and a simple way of constructing the twisted vertex operator map. This essentially combines our general relations for twisted modules with ideas of Li (1996), who had obtained similar construction theorems using different relations. Then, I show how to apply these theorems in order to construct twisted modules for the Heisenberg vertex operator algebra. I obtain in a new way the explicit twisted vertex operator map, and in particular give a new derivation and expression for the formal operator Δx\Delta_x constructed some time ago by Frenkel, Lepowsky and Meurman. Finally, I reproduce parts of our joint papers. The untwisted relations in the Heisenberg vertex operator algebra are employed to explain properties of a certain central extension of a Lie algebra of differential operators on the circle, in relation to the Riemann Zeta function at negative integers. A family of representations for this algebra are constructed from twisted modules for the vertex operator algebra, and are related to the Bernoulli polynomials at rational values.Comment: 41 pages, contribution to proceedings of the workshop "Moonshine - the First Quarter Century and Beyond, a Workshop on the Moonshine Conjectures and Vertex Algebras" (Edinburgh, 2004) v2: 43 pages, presentation, discussion and proofs improve

    Hypotrochoids in conformal restriction systems and Virasoro descendants

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    A conformal restriction system is a commutative, associative, unital algebra equipped with a representation of the groupoid of univalent conformal maps on connected open sets of the Riemann sphere, and a family of linear functionals on subalgebras, satisfying a set of properties including conformal invariance and a type of restriction. This embodies some expected properties of expectation values in conformal loop ensembles CLE. In the context of conformal restriction systems, we study certain algebra elements associated with hypotrochoid simple curves (including the ellipse). These have the CLE interpretation of being "renormalized random variables" that are nonzero only if there is at least one loop of hypotrochoid shape. Each curve has a center w, a scale \epsilon\ and a rotation angle \theta, and we analyze the renormalized random variable as a function of u=\epsilon e^{i\theta} and w. We find that it has an expansion in positive powers of u and u*, and that the coefficients of pure u (u*) powers are holomorphic in w (w*). We identify these coefficients (the "hypotrochoid fields") with certain Virasoro descendants of the identity field in conformal field theory, thereby showing that they form part of a vertex operator algebraic structure. This largely generalizes works by the author (in CLE), and the author with his collaborators V. Riva and J. Cardy (in SLE 8/3 and other restriction measures), where the case of the ellipse, at the order u^2, led to the stress-energy tensor of CFT. The derivation uses in an essential way the Virasoro vertex operator algebra structure of conformal derivatives established recently by the author. The results suggest in particular the exact evaluation of CLE expectations of products of hypotrochoid fields as well as non-trivial relations amongst them through the vertex operator algebra, and further shed light onto the relationship between CLE and CFT.Comment: 1 figure, 39 page

    Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems

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    Recently, it was understood that modified concepts of locality played an important role in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by thermodynamic susceptibilities. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states, which are determined by pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states at high enough temperatures, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to the evolution dynamics. If the evolution dynamics does not admit any conserved pseudolocal charges other than the evolution Hamiltonian, we show that any stationary pseudolocal state with respect to this dynamics is a thermal Gibbs state, and that Gibbs thermalization occurs. The framework is that of translation-invariant states on hypercubic quantum lattices of any dimensionality (including quantum chains) and finite-range Hamiltonians, and does not involve integrability.Comment: v1: 43 pages. v2: corrections and clarifications, references added, 46 pages. v3: 48 pages, further corrections made, accepted for publication in Commun. Math. Phy

    Finite-Temperature Form Factors: a Review

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    We review the concept of finite-temperature form factor that was introduced recently by the author in the context of the Majorana theory. Finite-temperature form factors can be used to obtain spectral decompositions of finite-temperature correlation functions in a way that mimics the form-factor expansion of the zero temperature case. We develop the concept in the general factorised scattering set-up of integrable quantum field theory, list certain expected properties and present the full construction in the case of the massive Majorana theory, including how it can be applied to the calculation of correlation functions in the quantum Ising model. In particular, we include the ''twisted construction'', which was not developed before and which is essential for the application to the quantum Ising model.Comment: This is a contribution to the Proc. of the O'Raifeartaigh Symposium on Non-Perturbative and Symmetry Methods in Field Theory (June 2006, Budapest, Hungary), published in SIGMA (Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications) at http://www.emis.de/journals/SIGMA

    Conformal field theory out of equilibrium: a review

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    We provide a pedagogical review of the main ideas and results in non-equilibrium conformal field theory and connected subjects. These concern the understanding of quantum transport and its statistics at and near critical points. Starting with phenomenological considerations, we explain the general framework, illustrated by the example of the Heisenberg quantum chain. We then introduce the main concepts underlying conformal field theory (CFT), the emergence of critical ballistic transport, and the CFT scattering construction of non-equilibrium steady states. Using this we review the theory for energy transport in homogeneous one-dimensional critical systems, including the complete description of its large deviations and the resulting (extended) fluctuation relations. We generalize some of these ideas to one-dimensional critical charge transport and to the presence of defects, as well as beyond one-dimensional criticality. We describe non-equilibrium transport in free-particle models, where connections are made with generalized Gibbs ensembles, and in higher-dimensional and non-integrable quantum field theories, where the use of the powerful hydrodynamic ideas for non-equilibrium steady states is explained. We finish with a list of open questions. The review does not assume any advanced prior knowledge of conformal field theory, large-deviation theory or hydrodynamics.Comment: 50 pages + 10 pages of references, 5 figures. v2: minor modifications. Review article for special issue of JSTAT on nonequilibrium dynamics in integrable quantum system

    Drude Weight for the Lieb-Liniger Bose Gas

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    Based on the method of hydrodynamic projections we derive a concise formula for the Drude weight of the repulsive Lieb-Liniger δ\delta-Bose gas. Our formula contains only quantities which are obtainable from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. The Drude weight is an infinite-dimensional matrix, or bilinear functional: it is bilinear in the currents, and each current may refer to a general linear combination of the conserved charges of the model. As a by-product we obtain the dynamical two-point correlation functions involving charge and current densities at small wavelengths and long times, and in addition the scaled covariance matrix of charge transfer. We expect that our formulas extend to other integrable quantum models.Comment: 23 pages. v2: improved discussion, typos corrected, references added. v3: 26 pages, further improved discussion, references adde