93 research outputs found

    Cricket and the Law

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    Book review of Cricket and the Law by David Fraser and published by The Institute of Criminology (Sydney), 1993. (273 pp.

    Cricket and the Law

    Get PDF
    Book review of Cricket and the Law by David Fraser and published by The Institute of Criminology (Sydney), 1993. (273 pp.

    Just Add Functions: A Neural-Symbolic Language Model

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    Neural network language models (NNLMs) have achieved ever-improving accuracy due to more sophisticated architectures and increasing amounts of training data. However, the inductive bias of these models (formed by the distributional hypothesis of language), while ideally suited to modeling most running text, results in key limitations for today's models. In particular, the models often struggle to learn certain spatial, temporal, or quantitative relationships, which are commonplace in text and are second-nature for human readers. Yet, in many cases, these relationships can be encoded with simple mathematical or logical expressions. How can we augment today's neural models with such encodings? In this paper, we propose a general methodology to enhance the inductive bias of NNLMs by incorporating simple functions into a neural architecture to form a hierarchical neural-symbolic language model (NSLM). These functions explicitly encode symbolic deterministic relationships to form probability distributions over words. We explore the effectiveness of this approach on numbers and geographic locations, and show that NSLMs significantly reduce perplexity in small-corpus language modeling, and that the performance improvement persists for rare tokens even on much larger corpora. The approach is simple and general, and we discuss how it can be applied to other word classes beyond numbers and geography.Comment: Preprint of paper accepted for AAAI-202

    CascadER: Cross-Modal Cascading for Knowledge Graph Link Prediction

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    Knowledge graph (KG) link prediction is a fundamental task in artificial intelligence, with applications in natural language processing, information retrieval, and biomedicine. Recently, promising results have been achieved by leveraging cross-modal information in KGs, using ensembles that combine knowledge graph embeddings (KGEs) and contextual language models (LMs). However, existing ensembles are either (1) not consistently effective in terms of ranking accuracy gains or (2) impractically inefficient on larger datasets due to the combinatorial explosion problem of pairwise ranking with deep language models. In this paper, we propose a novel tiered ranking architecture CascadER to maintain the ranking accuracy of full ensembling while improving efficiency considerably. CascadER uses LMs to rerank the outputs of more efficient base KGEs, relying on an adaptive subset selection scheme aimed at invoking the LMs minimally while maximizing accuracy gain over the KGE. Extensive experiments demonstrate that CascadER improves MRR by up to 9 points over KGE baselines, setting new state-of-the-art performance on four benchmarks while improving efficiency by one or more orders of magnitude over competitive cross-modal baselines. Our empirical analyses reveal that diversity of models across modalities and preservation of individual models' confidence signals help explain the effectiveness of CascadER, and suggest promising directions for cross-modal cascaded architectures. Code and pretrained models are available at https://github.com/tsafavi/cascader.Comment: AKBC 202
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