219 research outputs found

    Recent Developments

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    Recent Developments in Arkansas La

    Recent Developments

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    Recent Developments in Arkansas La

    First narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves from known pulsars in advanced detector data

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    Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signalto- noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, narrow-band analysis methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of 11 pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO’s first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched; in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far

    SOX8 is expressed during testis differentiation in mice and synergizes with SF1 to activate the Amh promoter in vitro

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    Sox8 is a member of the Sox family of developmental transcription factor genes and is closely related to Sox9, a key gene in the testis determination pathway in mammals. Like Sox9, Sox8 is expressed in the developing mouse testis around the time of sex determination, suggesting that it might play a role in regulating the expression of testis-specific genes. An early step in male sex differentiation is the expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in Sertoli cells. Expression of the Amh gene during sex differentiation requires the interaction of several transcription factors, including SF1, SOX9, GATA4, WT1, and DAX1. Here we show that SOX8 may also be involved in regulating the expression of Amh. Expression of Sox8 begins just prior to that of Amh at 12 days post coitum (dpc) in mouse testes and continues beyond 16 dpc in Sertoli cells. In vitro assays showed that SOX8 binds specifically to SOX binding sites within the Amh minimal promoter and, like SOX9, acts synergistically with SF1 through direct protein-protein interaction to enhance Amh expression, albeit at lower levels compared with SOX9. SOX8 and SOX9 appear to have arisen from a common ancestral gene and may have retained some common functions during sexual development. Our data provide the first evidence that SOX8 may partially compensate for the reduced SOX9 activity in campomelic dysplasia and substitute for Sox9 where Sox9 is either not expressed or expressed too late to be involved in sex determination or regulation of Amh expression

    Sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy

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    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The first observation run of the Advanced LIGO detectors started in September 2015 and ended in January 2016. A strain sensitivity of better than 10‚ąí23/Hz‚ąí‚ąí‚ąí‚ąö was achieved around 100 Hz. Understanding both the fundamental and the technical noise sources was critical for increasing the astrophysical strain sensitivity. The average distance at which coalescing binary black hole systems with individual masses of 30‚ÄČ‚ÄČM‚äô could be detected above a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 was 1.3 Gpc, and the range for binary neutron star inspirals was about 75 Mpc. With respect to the initial detectors, the observable volume of the Universe increased by a factor 69 and 43, respectively. These improvements helped Advanced LIGO to detect the gravitational wave signal from the binary black hole coalescence, known as GW150914

    Search for post-merger gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817

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    In Advanced LIGO, detection and astrophysical source parameter estimation of the binary black hole merger GW150914 requires a calibrated estimate of the gravitational-wave strain sensed by the detectors. Producing an estimate from each detector's differential arm length control loop readout signals requires applying time domain filters, which are designed from a frequency domain model of the detector's gravitational-wave response. The gravitational-wave response model is determined by the detector's opto-mechanical response and the properties of its feedback control system. The measurements used to validate the model and characterize its uncertainty are derived primarily from a dedicated photon radiation pressure actuator, with cross-checks provided by optical and radio frequency references. We describe how the gravitational-wave readout signal is calibrated into equivalent gravitational-wave-induced strain and how the statistical uncertainties and systematic errors are assessed. Detector data collected over 38 calendar days, from September 12 to October 20, 2015, contain the event GW150914 and approximately 16 of coincident data used to estimate the event false alarm probability. The calibration uncertainty is less than 10% in magnitude and 10 degrees in phase across the relevant frequency band 20 Hz to 1 kHz

    Comparing Notes: Recording and Criticism

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    This chapter charts the ways in which recording has changed the nature of music criticism. It both provides an overview of the history of recording and music criticism, from the advent of Edison’s Phonograph to the present day, and examines the issues arising from this new technology and the consequent transformation of critical thought and practice

    Supplement: "Localization and broadband follow-up of the gravitational-wave transient GW150914" (2016, ApJL, 826, L13)