1,249 research outputs found

    Can your arthritis patients get to the tablets? A study of medicine bottle opening

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    There has been increasing interest recently in the presentation and packaging of drugs for elderly patients and the manufacture of child-proof containers. This had led to the development of specially designed bottles or blister packs now commonly used fur over the counter analgesic preparations. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthrosis are common diseases and many patients suffering from these diseases develop considerable deformities of the hand leading to an inability to perform activities of daily living. In a previous study (Mason et. al.) 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were shown to have difficulty in opening child-proof containers. In this study we decided to include patients with osteoarthrosis as well and to test the ability of both rheumatoid and osteoarthritic patients to open blister packs as well as child-proof containers

    Do the constants of nature couple to strong gravitational fields?

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    Recently, white dwarf stars have found a new use in the fundamental physics community. Many prospective theories of the fundamental interactions of Nature allow traditional constants, like the fine structure constant α\alpha, to vary in some way. A study by Berengut et al. (2013) used the Fe/Ni V line measurements made by Preval et al. (2013) from the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B, in an attempt to detect any variation in α\alpha. It was found that the Fe V lines indicated an increasing alpha, whereas the Ni V lines indicated a decreasing alpha. Possible explanations for this could be misidentification of the lines, inaccurate atomic data, or wavelength dependent distortion in the spectrum. We examine the first two cases by using a high S/N reference spectrum from the hot sdO BD+28^{\circ}4211 to calibrate the Fe/Ni V atomic data. With this new data, we re-evaluate the work of Berengut et al. (2013) to derive a new constraint on the variation of alpha in a gravitational field.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures: To appear in the proceedings of the "19th European White Dwarf Workshop" in Montreal, Canada, 201

    Stable single α-Helices are constant force springs in proteins

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    Single α-helix (SAH) domains are rich in charged residues (Arg, Lys, and Glu) and stable in solution over a wide range of pH and salt concentrations. They are found in many different proteins where they bridge two functional domains. To test the idea that their high stability might enable these proteins to resist unfolding along their length, the properties and unfolding behavior of the predicted SAH domain from myosin-10 were characterized. The expressed and purified SAH domain was highly helical, melted non-cooperatively, and was monomeric as shown by circular dichroism and mass spectrometry as expected for a SAH domain. Single molecule force spectroscopy experiments showed that the SAH domain unfolded at very low forces (<30 pN) without a characteristic unfolding peak. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the SAH domain unfolds progressively as the length is increased and refolds progressively as the length is reduced. This enables the SAH domain to act as a constant force spring in the mechanically dynamic environment of the cell

    A mutant of Burkholderia pseudomallei, auxotrophic in the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway, is attenuated and protective in a murine model of melioidosis.

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    Using a transposon mutagenesis approach, we have identified a mutant of Burkholderia pseudomallei that is auxotrophic for branched chain amino acids. The transposon was shown to have interrupted the ilvI gene encoding the large subunit of the acetolactate synthase enzyme. Compared to the wild type, this mutant was significantly attenuated in a murine model of disease. Mice inoculated intraperitoneally with the auxotrophic mutant, 35 days prior to challenge, were protected against a challenge dose of 6,000 median lethal doses of wild-type B. pseudomallei

    Therapist Experiences of Congruence in School-Based Counselling

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    Congruence is a key counselling concept, cited as the most important of the therapist provided conditions (Rogers, 1967). Whilst literature on congruence and its use within the therapeutic relationship is rich, there is a lack of research exploring how counsellors understand and experience congruence with children in school-based counselling programmes. This study explored how counsellors perceive, experience, and offer congruence with children in school-based counselling. Using phenomenology and hermeneutics as a philosophical basis, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three person-centred counsellors and one integrative counsellor who currently work with children in a school-based counselling service. The data was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). This analysis found the following themes: (1) Intrapersonal Congruence and (2) Navigating Multiple Terrains. Participants identified intrapersonal congruence of paramount importance when working with children. Moments of insightful non-disclosure of therapist process are common and serve to enhance the therapeutic relationship with children. The ‘self’ of the therapist, and the presence of certain aspects of self in the therapy room, can impact upon congruence. Therapist personal self-disclosure was essential in facilitating a strong therapeutic alliance with children; this paper argues it should be considered a central aspect of congruence with children. Finally, lack of clarity around the unique roles and responsibilities of working in a school setting as a counsellor affected the way therapists experience and offer congruence with children and young people. Implications for training and practice are also considered

    Night-Time Indomethacin in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Indomethacin is commonly prescribed at night to relieve morning stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions are frequently described with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the rationale of using more than one of these agents at the same time is questionable. A randomized crossover trial was carried out in 14 patients to compare the effects of 100 mg indomethacin at night with those of placebo when added to a baseline regimen of stabilized salicylate therapy with a slow-release preparation. Each treatment was given for 2 weeks. The results suggest that the addition of indomethacin produced no significant benefit in terms of reduction in the duration of morning stiffness or on the overall daily pain score

    Pion photoproduction on the nucleon in the quark model

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    We present a detailed quark-model study of pion photoproduction within the effective Lagrangian approach. Cross sections and single-polarization observables are investigated for the four charge channels, γpπ+n\gamma p\to \pi^+ n, γnπp\gamma n\to \pi^- p, γpπ0p\gamma p\to \pi^0 p, and γnπ0n\gamma n\to \pi^0 n. Leaving the πNΔ\pi N\Delta coupling strength to be a free parameter, we obtain a reasonably consistent description of these four channels from threshold to the first resonance region. Within this effective Lagrangian approach, strongly constrainted by the quark model, we consider the issue of double-counting which may occur if additional {\it t}-channel contributions are included.Comment: Revtex, 35 pages, 16 eps figures; version to appear on PR

    Low-Density Water Structure Observed in a Nanosegregated Cryoprotectant Solution at Low Temperatures from 285 to 238 K

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    The structure of liquid water is defined by its molecular association through hydrogen bonding. Two different structures have been proposed for liquid water at low temperatures: low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) water. Here, we demonstrate a platform that can be exploited to experimentally probe the structure of liquid water in equilibrium at temperatures down to 238 K. We make use of a cryoprotectant molecule, glycerol, that, when mixed with water, lowers the freezing temperature of the solution nonmonotonically with glycerol concentration. We use a combination of neutron diffraction measurements and computational modeling to examine the structure of water in glycerol–water liquid mixtures at low temperatures from 285 to 238 K. We confirm that the mixtures are nanosegregated into regions of glycerol-rich and water-rich clusters. We examine the water structure and reveal that, at the temperatures studied here, water forms a low-density water structure that is more tetrahedral than the structure at room temperature. We postulate that nanosegregation allows water to form a low-density structure that is protected by an extensive and encapsulating glycerol interface

    Quasi-local energy-momentum and two-surface characterization of the pp-wave spacetimes

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    In the present paper the determination of the {\it pp}-wave metric form the geometry of certain spacelike two-surfaces is considered. It has been shown that the vanishing of the Dougan--Mason quasi-local mass m$m_{\$}, associated with the smooth boundary $:=ΣS2\$:=\partial\Sigma\approx S^2 of a spacelike hypersurface Σ\Sigma, is equivalent to the statement that the Cauchy development D(Σ)D(\Sigma) is of a {\it pp}-wave type geometry with pure radiation, provided the ingoing null normals are not diverging on $\$ and the dominant energy condition holds on D(Σ)D(\Sigma). The metric on D(Σ)D(\Sigma) itself, however, has not been determined. Here, assuming that the matter is a zero-rest-mass-field, it is shown that both the matter field and the {\it pp}-wave metric of D(Σ)D(\Sigma) are completely determined by the value of the zero-rest-mass-field on $\$ and the two dimensional Sen--geometry of $\$ provided a convexity condition, slightly stronger than above, holds. Thus the {\it pp}-waves can be characterized not only by the usual Cauchy data on a {\it three} dimensional Σ\Sigma but by data on its {\it two} dimensional boundary $\$ too. In addition, it is shown that the Ludvigsen--Vickers quasi-local angular momentum of axially symmetric {\it pp}-wave geometries has the familiar properties known for pure (matter) radiation.Comment: 15 pages, Plain Tex, no figure