41 research outputs found

    Performance of Radiation Hard Pixel Sensors for the CMS Experiment

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    Position sensitive detectors in particle physics experiments are used for the detection of the particles trajectory produced in high energy collisions. To study physics phenomena at high energies the high particle interaction rate is unavoidable, as the number of interesting events falls with the energy and the total number of events is dominated by the soft processes. The position resolution of vertex detectors has to be of few microns in order to distinguish between particle tracks produced in b-quark or tau-decays, because of the short flight path before the decay. The high spatial position resolution and the ability to detect a large number of superimposed track are the key features for tracking detectors. Modern silicon microstrip and pixel detectors with high resolution are currently most suitable devices for the tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. In this work the performance of the sensors designed for the CMS pixel detector are studied and the position resolution is estimated. In the first chapter an introduction to the LHC and the CMS experiment is given. In addition, the CMS pixel detector and its sensors designs are described. In the second chapter the physical processes in semiconductor position sensitive detectors are discussed and the effects due to irradiation are described. In the third chapter the beam test setup used for the sensors study is presented and the data reconstruction is described. The fourth chapter presents the data analysis and the results. The charge collection e¬Īciency and the Lorentz angle are measured. The charge collection e¬Īciency is about 60% of the unirradiated sensors after a fluence up of 1x10^15 neq/cm2 . This value drops to 25% after a fluence of 2.6x10^15 neq/cm2 . The p-spray design and p-stop design with two openings exposed to a fluence of 6x10^14 neq/cm2 have a particle detection efficiency of 99% with a threshold of 2000 electrons. The respective value for the p-stop design with one opening is 95%. The Lorentz angle does not depend on irradiation or sensor design but strongly depends on the bias voltage. The Lorentz angle with a magnetic field of 4 T is about 26degrees for the unirradiated devices and a bias voltage of 100 V. It drops to 8.3degrees for the sensors irradiated at 1x10^15 neq/cm2 and a bias voltage of 600 V. A new method for the extraction of the electric field in the silicon sensor bulk is developed and applied to the data. The method is based on the measurement of the Lorentz deflection of the charge carriers in the sensor bulk. The measured electric field is implemented in the sensors simulation and the performances of the CMS pixel detector are estimated in the fifth chapter. The simulation is validated with the test beam data and is used to estimate the position resolution of the CMS pixel detector. The resolution of the pixel barrel sensors along the azimuthal a ngle is in the range between 10 mum and 20 mum. It strongly depends on irradiation and weakly depends on the polar angle of the particle track. The position resolution along the beam direction averaged over the azimuthal angle is in the range between 15 mum and 40 mum. In this case the resolution along the beam direction weakly depends on irradiation and strongly depends on the polar angle of the particle track

    Instanton effects in quark form factor and quark-quark scattering at high energy

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    The nonperturbative effects in the high-energy processes involving strongly interacting particles are studied within the instanton liquid model of the QCD vacuum (ILM) by using the Wilson integral framework. The detailed analysis of nonperturbative contributions to the electromagnetic quark form factor is presented considering the structure of the instanton induced effects in the evolution equation describing the high energy behaviour of the form factor. It is shown that the instantons yield in high energy limit the logarithmic corrections to the amplitudes which are exponentiated in small instanton density parameter. By using the Gaussian interpolation of the constrained instanton solution, we show that the all-order multi-instanton contribution is well approximated by the weak field limit result. The role of the instantons in high energy diffractive quark-quark scattering, in particular, in formation of the soft Pomeron, is also considered. We show that within the ILM the C-odd diffractive amplitude is suppressed as 1/s compared to the C-even one. The further applications of the developed approach in studying the nonperturbative effects in high energy hadronic processes are briefly discussed.Comment: 37 pages + 9 figures; JHEP styl

    Charged particle detection performances of CMOS pixel sensors produced in a 0.18 um process with a high resistivity epitaxial layer

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    The apparatus of the ALICE experiment at CERN will be upgraded in 2017/18 during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). A major motivation for this upgrade is to extend the physics reach for charmed and beauty particles down to low transverse momenta. This requires a substantial improvement of the spatial resolution and the data rate capability of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). To achieve this goal, the new ITS will be equipped with 50 um thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) covering either the 3 innermost layers or all the 7 layers of the detector. The CPS being developed for the ITS upgrade at IPHC (Strasbourg) is derived from the MIMOSA 28 sensor realised for the STAR-PXL at RHIC in a 0.35 um CMOS process. In order to satisfy the ITS upgrade requirements in terms of readout speed and radiation tolerance, a CMOS process with a reduced feature size and a high resistivity epitaxial layer should be exploited. In this respect, the charged particle detection performance and radiation hardness of the TowerJazz 0.18 um CMOS process were studied with the help of the first prototype chip MIMOSA 32. The beam tests performed with negative pions of 120 GeV/c at the CERN-SPS allowed to measure a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the non-irradiated chip in the range between 22 and 32 depending on the pixel design. The chip irradiated with the combined dose of 1 MRad and 10^13 n_eq/cm^2 was observed to yield a SNR ranging between 11 and 23 for coolant temperatures varying from 15 C to 30 C. These SNR values were measured to result in particle detection efficiencies above 99.5% and 98% before and after irradiation respectively. These satisfactory results allow to validate the TowerJazz 0.18 um CMOS process for the ALICE ITS upgrade.Comment: (v2) Added hyper-links; (v3) A typo correcte

    Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors fully adapted to the ILD Vertex Detector Requirements

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    CMOS Pixel Sensors are making steady progress towards the specifications of the ILD vertex detector. Recent developments are summarised, which show that these devices are close to comply with all major requirements, in particular the read-out speed needed to cope with the beam related background. This achievement is grounded on the double- sided ladder concept, which allows combining signals generated by a single particle in two different sensors, one devoted to spatial resolution and the other to time stamp, both assembled on the same mechanical support. The status of the development is overviewed as well as the plans to finalise it using an advanced CMOS process.Comment: 2011 International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders (LCWS11), Granada, Spain, 26-30 September 201

    Two dimensional Dirac fermions in the presence of long-range correlated disorder

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    We consider 2D Dirac fermions in the presence of three types of disorder: random scalar potential, random gauge potential and random mass with long-range correlations decaying as a power law. Using various methods such as the self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA), renormalization group (RG), the matrix Green function formalism and bosonisation we calculate the density of states and study the full counting statistics of fermionic transport at lower energy. The SCBA and RG show that the random correlated scalar potentials generate an algebraically small energy scale below which the density of states saturates to a constant value. For correlated random gauge potential, RG and bosonisation calculations provide consistent behavior of the density of states which diverges at zero energy in an integrable way. In the case of correlated random mass disorder the RG flow has a nontrivial infrared stable fixed point leading to a universal power-law behavior of the density of states and also to universal transport properties. In contrast to uncorrelated case the correlated scalar potential and random mass disorders give rise to deviation from the pseudodiffusive transport already to lowest order in disorder strength.Comment: 17 pages, 8 figures, revtex

    Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

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    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.Comment: 8 pages, 11 figures. Talk presented at the 2004 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, October 18-21, Rome, Italy. Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Scienc

    Instanton Corrections to Quark Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfer

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    Within the Wilson integral formalism, we discuss the structure of nonperturbative corrections to the quark form factor at large momentum transfer analyzing the infrared renormalon and instanton effects. We show that the nonperturbative effects determine the initial value for the perturbative evolution of the quark form factor and attribute their general structure to the renormalon ambiguities of the perturbative series. It is demonstrated that the instanton contributions result in the finite renormalization of the next-to-leading perturbative result and numerically are characterized by a small factor reflecting the diluteness of the QCD vacuum within the instanton liquid model.Comment: Version coincident with the journal publication, 9 pages; REVTe

    Nonperturbative contributions to the quark form factor at high energy

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    The analysis of nonperturbative effects in high energy asymptotics of the electomagnetic quark form factor is presented. It is shown that the nonperturbative effects determine the initial value for the perturbative evolution of the quark form factor and find their general structure with respect to the high energy asymptotics. Within the Wilson integral formalism which is natural for investigation of the soft, IR sensitive, part of the factorized form factor, the structure of the instanton induced effects in the evolution equation is discussed. It is demonstrated that the instanton contributions result in the finite renormalization of the subleading perturbative result and numerically are characterized by small factor reflecting the diluteness of the QCD vacuum within the instanton liquid model. The relevance of the IR renormalon induced effects in high energy asymptotic behaviour is discussed. The consequences of the various analytization procedures of the strong coupling constant in the IR domain are considered.Comment: REVTeX, 12 pages, 1 figure. Important references and discussions added, misprints corrected, minor changes in tex

    Optimisation of CMOS pixel sensors for high performance vertexing and tracking

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    CMOS Pixel Sensors tend to become relevant for a growing spectrum of charged particle detection instruments. This comes mainly from their high granularity and low material budget. However, several potential applications require a higher read-out speed and radiation tolerance than those achieved with available devices based on a 0.35 micrometers feature size technology. This paper shows preliminary test results of new prototype sensors manufactured in a 0.18 micrometers process based on a high resistivity epitaxial layer of sizeable thickness. Grounded on these observed performances, we discuss a development strategy over the coming years to reach a full scale sensor matching the specifications of the upgraded version of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment at CERN, for which a sensitive area of up to about 10 square meters may be equipped with pixel sensors.Comment: Presented at the Vienna Conference on Instrumentation 2013 4 pages, 5 figure
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