138 research outputs found

    COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Inducible cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) is commonly overexpressed in breast tumors and is a target for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the association of COX-2 with breast cancer survival and how this association is influenced by tumor estrogen and HER2 receptor status and Akt pathway activation.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Tumor COX-2, HER2 and estrogen receptor α (ER) expression and phosphorylation of Akt, BAD, and caspase-9 were analyzed immunohistochemically in 248 cases of breast cancer. Spearman's correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and disease-specific survival.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>COX-2 was significantly associated with breast cancer outcome in ER-negative [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-5.41; comparing high versus low COX-2] and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer (HR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.07-7.52). However, the hazard of poor survival associated with increased COX-2 was highest among patients who were both ER-negative and HER2-positive (HR = 5.95; 95% CI, 1.01-34.9). Notably, COX-2 expression in the ER-negative and HER2-positive tumors correlated significantly with increased phosphorylation of Akt and of the two Akt targets, BAD at Ser136 and caspase-9 at Ser196.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Up-regulation of COX-2 in ER-negative and HER2-positive breast tumors is associated with Akt pathway activation and is a marker of poor outcome. The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype.</p

    Differences in the Tumor Microenvironment between African-American and European-American Breast Cancer Patients

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    Background: African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. Methods and Results: Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-American

    South College District Redevelopment Plan, Bryan, TX

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    The site, South College Corridor District, is located between the boarder of the city of Bryan and College Station where Texas A&M University is placed. South College Corridor has been served as a major throughfare to connect Texas A&M University and Downtown Bryan. In 1910, the City built a trolley system along South College Avenue.Along with the growth of Texas A&M University and its expansion toward Texas Avenue, TX6, and University Avenue, South College Avenue has lost much of its glory as a destination point. The district has been mainly developed for single family housing units, mobile homes, and few restaurants and bars. However, recent private development projects with mixed-use buildings and apartment complexes nearby will change the topography of this area. To provide a big picture and guide future development in this area, students were created redevelopment plans for several parts of the whole community.Texas A&M University, Texas Target Communities, Yunmi Par

    Near-infrared Imaging of a Spiral in the CQ Tau Disk

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    We present L'-band Keck/NIRC2 imaging and H-band Subaru/AO188+HiCIAO polarimetric observations of the CQ Tau disk with a new spiral arm. Apart from the spiral feature, our observations could not detect any companion candidates. We traced the spiral feature from the r[SUP]2[/SUP]-scaled High-Contrast Coronographic Imager for Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) polarimetric intensity image and the fitted result is used for forward modeling to reproduce the ADI-reduced NIRC2 image. We estimated the original surface brightness after throughput correction in the L' band to be ∼126 mJy arcsec[SUP]-2[/SUP] at most. We suggest that the grain temperature of the spiral may be heated up to ∼200 K in order to explain both of the H- and L'-band results. The H-band emission at the location of the spiral originates from the scattering from the disk surface while both scattering and thermal emission may contribute to the L'-band emission. If the central star is only the light source of scattered light, the spiral emission at the L' band should be thermal emission. If an inner disk also acts as the light source, the scattered light and the thermal emission may equally contribute to the L'-band spiral structure