57,174 research outputs found

    RQM description of PS meson form factors, constraints from space-time translations, and underlying dynamics

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    The role of Poincar\'e covariant space-time translations is investigated in the case of the pseudoscalar-meson charge form factors. It is shown that this role extends beyond the standard energy-momentum conservation, which is accounted for in all relativistic quantum mechanics calculations. It implies constraints that have been largely ignored until now but should be fulfilled to ensure the full Poincar\'e covariance. The violation of these constraints, which is more or less important depending on the form of relativistic quantum mechanics that is employed, points to the validity of using a single-particle current, which is generally assumed in calculations of form factors. In short, these constraints concern the relation of the momentum transferred to the constituents to the one transferred to the system. How to account for the related constraints, as well as restoring the equivalence of different relativistic quantum mechanics approaches in estimating form factors, is discussed. Some conclusions relative to the underlying dynamics are given in the pion case.Comment: 37 pages, 13 figures; figures completed for notations, revised text with better emphasis on differences with previous works; accepted for publication in EPJ

    Form factors in relativistic quantum mechanics: constraints from space-time translations

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    The comparison of form factors calculated from a single-particle current in different relativistic quantum mechanic approaches evidences tremendous discrepancies. The role of constraints coming from space-time translations is considered here with this respect. It is known that invariance under these translations implies the energy-momentum conservation relation that is usually assumed to hold globally. Transformations of the current under these translations, which lead to this result, also imply constraints that have been ignored so far in relativistic quantum mechanic approaches. An implementation of these constraints is discussed in the case of a model with two scalar constituents. It amounts to incorporate selected two-body currents to all orders in the interaction. Discrepancies for form factors in different approaches can thus be removed, contributing to restore the equivalence of different approaches. Results for the standard front-form approach (q+=0q^+=0) are found to fulfill the constraints and are therefore unchanged. The relation with results from a dispersion-relation approach is also made.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures; to be published in the proceedings of LC2008; Light Cone 2008. Relativistic Nuclear and Particle Physics, Mulhouse : France (2008

    Global functions in global-local finite-element analysis of localized stresses in prismatic structures

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    An important consideration in the global local finite-element method (GLFEM) is the availability of global functions for the given problem. The role and mathematical requirements of these global functions in a GLFEM analysis of localized stress states in prismatic structures are discussed. A method is described for determining these global functions. Underlying this method are theorems due to Toupin and Knowles on strain energy decay rates, which are related to a quantitative expression of Saint-Venant's principle. It is mentioned that a mathematically complete set of global functions can be generated, so that any arbitrary interface condition between the finite element and global subregions can be represented. Convergence to the true behavior can be achieved with increasing global functions and finite-element degrees of freedom. Specific attention is devoted to mathematically two-dimensional and three-dimensional prismatic structures. Comments are offered on the GLFEM analysis of NASA flat panel with a discontinuous stiffener. Methods for determining global functions for other effects are also indicated, such as steady-state dynamics and bodies under initial stress

    Crystal structure of Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus nucleoprotein-RNA complex reveals a novel RNA sequestration mechanism

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    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae) that has caused severe disease in the offspring of farm animals across Europe. Like all orthobunyaviruses, SBV contains a tripartite negative-sense RNA genome that is encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein in the form of a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). We recently reported the three-dimensional structure of SBV N that revealed a novel fold. Here we report the crystal structure of the SBV N protein in complex with a 42-nt-long RNA to 2.16 Å resolution. The complex comprises a tetramer of N that encapsidates the RNA as a cross-shape inside the protein ring structure, with each protomer bound to 11 ribonucleotides. Eight bases are bound in the positively charged cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains of N, and three bases are shielded by the extended N-terminal arm. SBV N appears to sequester RNA using a different mechanism compared with the nucleoproteins of other negative-sense RNA viruses. Furthermore, the structure suggests that RNA binding results in conformational changes of some residues in the RNA-binding cleft and the N- and C-terminal arms. Our results provide new insights into the novel mechanism of RNA encapsidation by orthobunyaviruses

    Experimental studies on the shear resistance of original coal-shale joint

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    Purpose. Experimental study and theoretical modeling of the shear resistance of original coal-shale joint. Methods. A two-segment model was developed to describe the shear resistance-shear displacement curves obtained from the direct shear tests of eight coal-shale joints by letting the two segments of the fitting curve pass through the peak point of each curve. Findings. The two-segment model well describes the shear resistance variation of the coal-shale joints during the shear process, and there exist good relationships between the fitting parameters and the shear testing parameters. The initial slope of the softening part of the shear resistance – shear displacement curve can help to predict whether the coal pillar will burst drastically when it fails. Moreover, the normal displacement was very small in the pre-peak range which indicates that the complete detachment of original coal-shale joint surfaces has not occurred before the peak. Originality. Direct shear tests were conducted on original coal-shale specimens for the first time, and a two-segment model is developed to describe their shear resistance-shear displacement curves. The initial slope of the softening part of the shear resistance – shear displacement curve is proposed to predict the burst tendency of coal pillar. Different from unbonded rock joints, the detachment of the original coal-shale joint occurs just after the peak. Practical implications. The conclusions may have some help to understand the shear resistance mechanism of original coal-shale joint and to provide some new ideas of maintaining coal pillar stability.Мета. Експериментальне дослідження та теоретичне моделювання опору зсуву початкового шару вуглистого сланцю. Методика. Розроблено модель для опису кривих опору зсуву й зсувного зміщення, отриманих у результаті випробувань на прямий зсув восьми шарів вуглистого сланцю. Модель включає два сегменти апроксимуючої кривої, що проходять через вищі точки описуваних кривих. Результати. Запропонована модель достовірно описує зміну опору на зсув шарів вуглистого сланцю в про-процесі зсуву, при цьому визначено наявність тісного зв’язку між параметрами апроксимації та параметрами випробування на зсув. За початковим нахилом кривої в частині ослаблення опору зсуву й зсувного зміщення можна передбачити, чи відбудеться значне руйнування цілика вугілля при його обваленні. Нормальне зміщення є незначним у передпіковому діапазоні, що свідчить про те, що в цей час не відбувається повного відриву поверхонь шару вуглистого сланцю. Наукова новизна. Випробування на прямий зсув проводилися вперше на зразках початкового вуглистого сланцю. Двохсегментна модель була розроблена спеціально для опису кривих опору зсуву та зсувного зміщення досліджуваних шарів. За початковим нахилом кривої в частині ослаблення опору зсуву й зсувного зміщення можна передбачити характер руйнування цілика. На відміну від незв’язаних шарів породи, відділення початкового шару вуглистого сланцю відбувається після пікових значень досліджуваних кривих. Практична значимість. Висновки можуть допомогти зрозуміти механізм опору зсуву в первісному шарі вуглистого сланцю й окреслити нові підходи до збереження стабільності вугільного цілика.Цель. Экспериментальное исследование и теоретическое моделирование сопротивления сдвигу первоначального слоя углистого сланца. Методика. Разработана модель для описания кривых сопротивления сдвигу и сдвигового смещения, полученных в результате испытаний на прямой сдвиг восьми слоев углистого сланца. Модель включает два сегмента аппроксимирующей кривой которые проходят через высшие точки описываемых кривых. Результаты. Предлагаемая модель достоверно описывает изменение сопротивления на сдвиг слоев углистого сланца в процессе сдвига, при этом определено наличие тесной связи между параметрами аппроксимации и параметрами испытания на сдвиг. По начальному наклону кривой в части ослабления сопротивления сдвигу и сдвигового смещения можно предсказать, произойдет ли значительное разрушение целика угля при его обрушении. Нормальное смещение незначительно в предпиковом диапазоне, что свидетельствует о том, что в это время не происходит полного отрыва поверхностей слоя углистого сланца. Научная новизна. Испытания на прямой сдвиг проводились впервые на образцах первоначального углистого сланца. Двухсегментная модель была разработана специально для описания кривых сопротивления сдвигу и сдвигового смещения исследуемых слоев. По начальному наклону кривой в части ослабления сопротивления сдвигу и сдвигового смещения можно предсказать характер разрушения целика. В отличие от несвязанных слоев породы, отделение первоначального слоя углистого сланца происходит после пиковых значений исследуемых кривых. Практическая значимость. Выводы могут помочь понять механизм сопротивления сдвигу в первоначальном слое углистого сланца и обозначить новые подходы к сохранению стабильности угольного целика.The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by China National Natural Science Foundation (51109076) and the key scientific and technological project of Henan Province (152102210316)

    Pion charge form factor and constraints from space-time translations

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    The role of Poincar\'e covariant space-time translations is investigated in the case of a relativistic quantum mechanics approach to the pion charge form factor. It is shown that the related constraints are generally inconsistent with the assumption of a single-particle current, which is most often referred to. The only exception is the front-form approach with q+=0q^+=0. How accounting for the related constraints, as well as restoring the equivalence of different RQM approaches in estimating form factors, is discussed. Some extensions of this work and, in particular, the relationship with a dispersion-relation approach, are presented. Conclusions relative to the underlying dynamics are given.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures, proceedings of the QNP2009 international conference (Beijing, oct. 2009), to be published in Chinese Physics