3,037 research outputs found

    Relativistic Gravity Gradiometry: The Mashhoon--Theiss Effect

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    In general relativity, relativistic gravity gradiometry involves the measurement of the relativistic tidal matrix, which is theoretically obtained from the projection of the Riemann curvature tensor onto the orthonormal tetrad frame of an observer. The observer's 4-velocity vector defines its local temporal axis and its local spatial frame is defined by a set of three orthonormal nonrotating gyro directions. The general tidal matrix for the timelike geodesics of Kerr spacetime has been calculated by Marck\cite{Marck}. We are interested in the measured components of the curvature tensor along the inclined "circular" geodesic orbit of a test mass about a slowly rotating astronomical object of mass MM and angular momentum JJ. Therefore, we specialize Marck's results to such a "circular" orbit that is tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the Kerr source. To linear order in JJ, we recover the Mashhoon--Theiss effect, which is due to a small denominator ("resonance") phenomenon involving the frequency of geodetic precession. The Mashhoon--Theiss effect shows up as a special long-period gravitomagnetic part of the relativistic tidal matrix. The physical interpretation of this effect is briefly discussed.Comment: 23 pages; revtex macros used; two figures; v2: references added, presentation improved; v3: subsection V(B) added, other additions and improvement

    Detweiler's gauge-invariant redshift variable: analytic determination of the nine and nine-and-a-half post-Newtonian self-force contributions

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    Continuing our analytic computation of the first-order self-force contribution to Detweiler's redshift variable we provide the exact expressions of the ninth and ninth-and-a-half post-Newtonian terms.Comment: 4 pages, revtex 4.1 macros use

    Two-body gravitational spin-orbit interaction at linear order in the mass ratio

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    We analytically compute, to linear order in the mass-ratio, the "geodetic" spin precession frequency of a small spinning body orbiting a large (non-spinning) body to the eight-and-a-half post-Newtonian order, thereby extending previous analytical knowledge which was limited to the third post-Newtonian level. These results are obtained applying analytical gravitational self-force theory to the first-derivative level generalization of Detweiler's gauge-invariant redshift variable. We compare our analytic results with strong-field numerical data recently obtained by S.~R.~Dolan et al. [Phys.\ Rev.\ D {\bf 89}, 064011 (2014)]. Our new, high-post-Newtonian-order results capture the strong-field features exhibited by the numerical data. We argue that the spin-precession will diverge as β‰ˆβˆ’0.14/(1βˆ’3y)\approx -0.14/(1-3y) as the light-ring is approached. We transcribe our kinematical spin-precession results into a corresponding improved analytic knowledge of one of the two (gauge-invariant) effective gyro-gravitomagnetic ratios characterizing spin-orbit couplings within the effective-one-body formalism. We provide simple, accurate analytic fits both for spin-precession and the effective gyro-gravitomagnetic ratio. The latter fit predicts that the linear-in-mass-ratio correction to the gyro-gravitomagnetic ratio changes sign before reaching the light-ring. This strong-field prediction might be important for improving the analytic modeling of coalescing spinning binaries.Comment: 22 pages, 3 figures, revtex macro

    Observer-dependent tidal indicators in the Kerr spacetime

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    The observer-dependent tidal effects associated with the electric and magnetic parts of the Riemann tensor with respect to an arbitrary family of observers are discussed in a general spacetime in terms of certain "tidal indicators." The features of such indicators are then explored by specializing our considerations to the family of stationary circularly rotating observers in the equatorial plane of the Kerr spacetime. There exist a number of observer families which are special for several reasons and for each of them such indicators are evaluated. The transformation laws of tidal indicators when passing from one observer to another are also discussed, clarifying the interplay among them. Our analysis shows that no equatorial plane circularly rotating observer in the Kerr spacetime can ever measure a vanishing tidal electric indicator, whereas the family of Carter's observers measures zero tidal magnetic indicator.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures. Note that there is a misprint in Eq. (4.5) of the published version: the plus sign in front of the last term in the sum (at the beginning of the last line) should be a minus sign. The resulting Eq. (4.6) should be corrected too. However, these misprinted equations are only a re-writing of previous equations, so that the analysis of the tidal indicators is not affected. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1306.480

    Deviation of quadrupolar bodies from geodesic motion in a Kerr spacetime

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    The deviation from geodesic motion of the world line of an extended body endowed with multipolar structure up to the mass quadrupole moment is studied in the Kerr background according to the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model. The properties of the quadrupole tensor are clarified by identifying the relevant components which enter the equations of motion, leading to the definition of an effective quadrupole tensor sharing its own algebraic symmetries, but also obeying those implied by the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model itself. The equations of motion are then solved analytically in the limit of small values of the characteristic length scales associated with the spin and quadrupole variables in comparison with the one associated with the background curvature and under special assumptions on body's structure and motion. The resulting quasi-circular orbit is parametrized in a Keplerian-like form, so that temporal, radial and azimuthal eccentricities as well as semi-major axis, period and periastron advance are explicitly computed and expressed in terms of gauge-invariant variables in the weak field and slow motion limit. A companion numerical study of the equations of motion is performed too.Comment: pages n. 20, fig. n. 1 (n.2 eps files), revtex macro

    Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime

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    The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.Comment: 19 pages, 6 figures; published versio

    Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

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    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity in two-dimensional spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein's field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of nonlocal gravity.Comment: 17 pages, ws macros used. v2: typos correcte

    Extended bodies in a Kerr spacetime: exploring the role of a general quadrupole tensor

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    The equatorial motion of extended bodies in a Kerr spacetime is investigated in the framework of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model, including the full set of effective components of the quadrupole tensor. The numerical integration of the associated equations shows the specific role of the mass and current quadrupole moment components. While most of the literature on this topic is limited to spin-induced (purely electric) quadrupole tensor, the present analysis highlights the effect of a completely general quadrupole tensor on the dynamics. The contribution of the magnetic-type components is indeed related to a number of interesting features, e.g., enhanced inward/outward spiraling behavior of the orbit and spin-flip-like effects, which may have observational counterparts. Finally, the validity limit of the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model is also discussed through explicit examples.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figures; published version. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1311.751

    Analytic determination of high-order post-Newtonian self-force contributions to gravitational spin precession

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    Continuing our analytic computation of the first-order self-force contribution to the "geodetic" spin precession frequency of a small spinning body orbiting a large (non-spinning) body we provide the exact expressions of the tenth and tenth-and-a-half post-Newtonian terms. We also introduce a new approach to the analytic computation of self-force regularization parameters based on a WKB analysis of the radial and angular equations satisfied by the metric perturbations.Comment: 10 pages, revtex macros use

    Superposition of Weyl solutions: circular orbits

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    Circular orbits are examined in static spacetimes belonging to the Weyl class of vacuum solutions which represent (nonlinear) superposition of the gravitational fields generated by certain collinear distributions of matter. In particular, solutions representing two and three Chazy-Curzon particles - all of them endowed with conical singularities - are considered. Conditions for geodesic motion in certain symmetry planes are discussed and results are summarized in a number of graphics too. All the discussion is developed in the framework of observer-dependent analysis of motion.Comment: 17 pages, 8 figures; published versio
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