33 research outputs found

    Computer model for the assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass use - a comparison of results obtained in two selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

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    Lesna biomasa je pomemben obnovljiv vir energije, ki ima lahko ┼ítevilne pozitivne socialno-ekonomske in okoljske vplive. V ─Źlanku ┼żelimo predstaviti novo ra─Źunalni┼íko aplikacijo za oceno 15 socialno-ekonomskih in okoljskih vplivov pove─Źane rabe lesne biomase. Ra─Źunalni┼íka aplikacija omogo─Źa lo─Źeno oceno vplivov glede na mesto nastanka v tehnolo┼íki verigi pridobivanja, predelave in rabe lesne biomase. Predlagana aplikacija omogo─Źa oceno jakosti naslednjih socialno-ekonomskih in okoljskih vplivov: nova delovna mesta, pove─Źan prihodek v regiji, dodatne aktivnosti na kmetijah, zmanj┼íevanje nezaposlenosti, pove─Źana samooskrba z energijo, pove─Źani javni dohodki v regiji. Med pomembnej┼íe in hkrati z aplikacijo merljive okoljske vplive sodijozmanj┼íevanje emisij CO2, zmanj┼íevanje stro┼íkov odlaganja odpadkov, vplivna rabo lesnih ostankov, prispevek h gospodarjenju z gozdovi ter vpliv narabo druge lesne biomase v regiji. Izra─Źun novih delovnih mest je razdeljen na neposredna, posredna in inducirana delovna mesta. Ra─Źunalni┼íka aplikacija je bila preizku┼íena v izbrani regiji v Sloveniji in na Hrva┼íkem.Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, which can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. In the present article we would like to present a new model for the estimation of 15 socioeconomic and environmental aspects of the increased use of wood biomass. The presented model enables a selected estimation of different aspects in different chains of biomass production, preparation and use, as well as an estimation of the following socio-economic and environmental aspects: net labour income, net profit, regional public finance receipts, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilization, impact on other woody biomass utilization, avoided costs of land fuel, saving CO2 emissions, possible impacton regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobsfor farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The most important is the estimation of new jobs, which is the reason why they were divided into direct, indirect and induced now jobs. The model was tested in two selected region in Slovenia and in Croatia

    DIE ├ľFFENTLICHKEIT ALS SCHL├ťSSELFAKTOR DER DURCHF├ťHRUNG VON PROJEKTEN ZUR NUTZUNG DER BIOMASSENENERGIE

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    Predvi─Ĺene promjene na tr┼żi┼ítima umre┼żenih energenata u Republici Hrvatskoj, kojima je obuhva─çeno restrukturiranje, privatizacija i promjene u cjelokupnom energetskom sektoru, imat ─çe zna─Źajan utjecaj na mogu─çnosti uvo─Ĺenja i pove─çane uporabe obnovljivih izvora energije. Obrazovanje javnosti, njezino uklju─Źivanje u procese odlu─Źivanja u energetskom sektoru te promocija obnovljivih izvora jo┼í uvijek nisu ─Źesta pojava u Hrvatskoj. Suprotno tome, u razvijenim zemljama Europske unije podrazumijeva se sudjelovanje javnosti u dono┼íenju odluka va┼żnih za energetski sektor. Izme─Ĺu ostalih prepreka pove─çanoj uporabi obnovljivih izvora, pa tako i energije biomase u Hrvatskoj, zna─Źajno mjesto zauzimaju i socijalne prepreke, za ─Źije ─çe prevladavanje, ali i za uspje┼íno pove─çanje udjela energije iz obnovljivih izvora biti potrebno obrazovanju i uklju─Źivanju javnosti posvetiti bitno ve─çu pozornost nego ┼íto se to do sada ─Źinilo. U radu se navodi primjer uspje┼ínog sudjelovanja javnosti u procesu odlu─Źivanja vezanom za uporabu energije biomase u ┼ívedskom gradu V├Ąxj├Â. Neki rezultati ankete kojom se poku┼íalo utvrditi poznavanje biomase i stajali┼íte stanovni┼ítva prema uporabi energije u Gorskom kotaru kao i pregled sredstava i na─Źina obrazovanja i komunikacije s javno┼í─çu prilago─Ĺenih Hrvatskoj. Osim toga, u radu se donose osnovne postavke sustava rada s javno┼í─çu koji bi se u Hrvatskoj trebao primijeniti za uspje┼íno poticanje uporabe energije biomase.The planned changes on the markets of the networked energents in the Republic of Croatia, which include the restructuring, privatization and changes in the overall energetic sector, will have an important influence on the possibility of introducing and increased use of renewable sources of energy. The education of the public, its including into the decision processes in the energetic sector and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are still not a common phenomenon in Croatia. Opposed to that, in the developed countries of the European Union the participation of the public is considered obligatory in making decisions important for the energetic sector. Among other barriers to an increased use of renewable sources, which implies also the use of biodegradable energy, the social barriers play an important role. In order to transcend them, but also to successfully increase the part of energy from renewable sources, the education and including of the public must receive much more attention than before. The paper presents an example of including the public into the decision process concerning the use of biodegradable sources in the Swedish city of V├Ąxj├Â. Presented are also the results of a survey in which it has been attempted at determining of the knowlegde on biodegradable sources and the attitudes of the population of the Croatian region of Gorski kotar towards its use. There is also an outline of means and ways of education and public relations adapted to Croatia. In addition to this, the paper presents basic instructions for a public relations system which should be applied in Croatia so to give impulses for the use of biodegradable energy.Die vorgesehenen ├änderungen auf den M├Ąrkten vernetzter Energenten in der Republik Kroatien, die sich auf die Restrukturierung, Privatisierung und ├änderungen im gesamten energetischen Sektor beziehen, werden einen gro├čen Einfluss auf die M├Âglichkeiten der Einf├╝hrung und erh├Âhter Nutzung von erneubaren Energiequellen aus├╝ben. Die Bildung der ├ľffentlichkeit, ihre Miteinbeiziehung in die Entscheidungdsprozesse sowie die F├Ârderung erneubarer Quellen sind in Kroatien noch immer sehr selten anzutreffen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist in den entwickelten L├Ąndern der EU die Beiteilung der ├ľffentlichkeit beim Treffen von Entscheidungen, die f├╝r die Energetik wichtig sind, selbstverst├Ąndlich. Unter anderen Hindernissen f├╝r eine erh├Âhte Nutzung erneubarer Quellen in Kroatien, wozu auch die Biomasse z├Ąhlt, spielen eine wichtige Rolle auch soziale Hindernisse. Ihre ├ťberwindung, aber auch ein erh├Âhter Energieanteil aus erneubaren Quellen kann nur dadurch erzielt werden, indem man der Bildung und der Miteinbeziehung der ├ľffentlichkeit eine viel gr├Â├čere Aufmerksamkeit schenkt, als es fr├╝her der Fall war. In dieser Arbeit wird ein erfolgreiches Beispiel im Hinblick auf die Beiteiliung der ├ľffenlichkeit angef├╝hrt, und zwar in der schwedischen Stadt V├Ąxj├Â. Angegeben werden auch Ergebnisse einer Umfrage, durch die man die Kenntnisse ├╝ber die Biomasse und die Einstellungen der Bev├Âlkerung in der kroatischen Region Gorski kotar zur Energienutzung ermitteln wollte. Angef├╝hrt werden auch die Mittel sowie die Art der Bildung und des Kommunizierens mit der ├ľffentlichkeit, die den kroatischen Verh├Ąltnissen angepasst worden sind. Angegeben werden auch die Grundvoraussetzungen f├╝r eine ├ľffentlichkeitsarbeit, die in Kroatien zur F├Ârderung der Nutzung von Biomassenenergie eingesetzt werden sollte

    SOZIAL├ľKONOMISCHE AUSWIRKUNGEN VON NUTZUNG DER BIOMASSENENERGIE

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    Ekonomski razvoj usko je povezan s raspolo┼żivo┼í─çu i primjenom novih izvora energije. U posljednje vrijeme sve vi┼íe postaje o─Źito da je dana┼ínji pristup energiji neodr┼żiv. U dosada┼ínjoj povijesti kori┼ítenja energije, socijalni su ─Źimbenici uvijek imali zna─Źajnu ulogu pri svakoj zna─Źajnijoj promjeni ili zaokretu. Zajedno s hidroenergijom, energijom vjetra, sunca te geotermalnom ener┬Čgijom, biomasa se danas smatra klju─Źnim ─Źimbenikom budu─çih strategija primjene obnovljivih izvora energije. Uporaba biomase i od nje dobivenih razli─Źitih biogoriva ima za posljedicu ┼íiroki spektar razli─Źitih dru┼ítvenih i gospodarskih pozitivnih posljedica, posebno u razvoju izoliranih i ruralnih podru─Źja. Kao posebno zna─Źajno mo┼że se istaknuti zapo┼íljavanje (otvaranje novih i zadr┼żavanje postoje─çih radnih mjesta), porast lokalne i regionalne gospodarske aktivnosti, ostva┬Črivanje dodatnog prihoda u poljoprivredi, ┼íumarstvu i drvnoj industriji prodajom biomaseÔÇôgoriva. Osim toga uspostavljaju se nov─Źani tokovi u lokalnoj zajednici (investicijeÔÇôzaradeÔÇôporezi) umjesto odljeva sredstava zbog kupovine fosilnih goriva. Utjecaj na zapo┼íljavanje te ostali navedeni socijalnoÔÇôgospodarski aspekti predstavljaju najve─çu prednost primjene biomase, kao i ostalih obnovljivih izvora energije. Razvijene dr┼żave Europske unije i svijeta svjesne su ovih pozitivnih u─Źinaka i stoga u znatnoj mjeri poma┼żu projekte primjene energije biomase. U radu se analiziraju veze razli─Źitih socijalnoÔÇôekonomskih ─Źimbenika koji nastaju kao posljedica primjene energije biomase te iznosi procjena doprinosa uporabe biomase na otvaranje novih radnih mjesta u Hrvatskoj. Prikazani su rezultati kao dio aktivnosti Nacionalnog energetskog programa BIOEN (Program primjene energije biomase i otpada), a uklju─Źeni su i u nedavno objavljenu Strategiju energetskog razvoja Republike Hrvatske.In the history of using energy it was social factors that played an important role in any kind of significant transformation. Along with water, wind, solar and geothermal energy, it is biodegradable energy that is being conceived a key factor in future strategies of using renewable sources of energy. Usage of biodegradable sources and fuels produced from them has resulted in a number of various positive social and economic impacts, especially with respect to the development of isolated and rural areas. Special importance comes to employment (opening of new and retaining of existent job opportunities), increased local and regional economic activity, gaining of additional returns in agriculture, forestry and lumbery by selling fuels produced from biodegradable sources. In addition to this, new money flows can be established in a local community (investments ÔÇô earnings ÔÇô taxes) instead of money outflow due to buying fossile fuels. The impact on employment and other socioÔÇôeconomic aspects are the most important advantage of using biodegradable and other renewable sources of energy. Developed countries within and outside European Union are conscious of these positive impacts, so that they significantly help projects concerned with using biodegradable sources of energy. In this paper various socioÔÇôeconomic factors are analyzed as a result of using biodegradable sources. Estimates about the impact of using biodegradable sources on opening new workplaces in Croatia are also presented. The results that are presented have emerged from activities within the National Energetics Programme BIOEN (Usage of Biodegradable Sources of Energy). They have also been included in recently published Strategy of Energetic Development of the Republic of Croatia.In der bisherigen Geschichte der EnergieNutzung spielten die sozialen Faktoren bei jeder bedeutenden Ver├Ąnderung oder Wende eine wichtige Rolle. Zusammen mit der WasserÔÇô, WindÔÇô, SonnenÔÇô und geothermalen Energie wird die Biomasse heute zum wichtigsten Faktor k├╝nftiger Nutzungsstrategien von erneubaren Energiequellen. Die Nutzung der Biomasse und der aus ihr gewonnenen unterschiedlichen BioÔÇôBrennstoffe hat eine Reihe von verschiedenen positiven gesellschaftlichen und wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen zur Folge, und zwar vor allem bei der Entwicklung von entlegenen und ruralen Gebieten. Als besonders wichtige Auswirkungen k├Ânnen folgende Tatsachen genannt werden: Er├Âffnung neuer und Beibehaltung schon bestehender Arbeitspl├Ątze, der Zuwachs lokaler und regionaler wirtschaftlicher Aktivit├Ąten, Zusatzumsatz in der LandÔÇô und Forstwirtschaft sowie in der Holzindustrie durch den Verkauf von BioÔÇôBrennstoffen. Dar├╝ber hinaus entstehen neue Geldtransaktionen in der lokalen Gemeinschaft (Investitionen ÔÇô Umsatz ÔÇô Steuern), statt dass das Geld durch den Ankauf von fossilen Brennstoffen abflie├čt. Die Auswirkungen auf den Arbeitsmarkt und die anderen genannten sozialÔÇôwirtschaftlichen Aspekte stellen den gr├Âssten Vorteil bei der Nutzung von Biomasse und anderen erneubaren Energiequellen dar. Die hochentwickelten Staaten innerhalb und au├čerhalb der Europ├Ąischen Union sind sich dieser Vorteile bewusst, so dass sie Projekte im Bereich der Nutzung von Biomassenenergie in gro├čem Ausmass unterst├╝tzen. Analysiert werden in dieser Studie die Beziehungen zwischen den verschiedenen sozialÔÇôwirtschaftlichen Faktoren, die sich aus der Nutzung von Biomassenenergie ergeben. Es wird auch dargestellt, wie sich die Nutzung von Biomassenenergie auf die Er├Âffnung neuer Arbeitspl├Ątze in Kroatien auswirken k├Ânnte. Die dargestellten Ergebnisse sind im Rahmen des Nationalen EnergieÔÇôProgramms BIOEN entstanden (Programm der Nutzung der aus Biomasse und M├╝ll gewonnenen Energie). Sie wurden auch in die neulich ver├Âffentlichte Strategie der energetischen Entwicklung der Republik Kroatien aufgenommen

    Procjena potencijala brzorastu─çih nasada u Republici Hrvatskoj: Primjer razultata u sklopu FP7 projekta Biomass energy Europe

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    The overall objective of the FP7 Biomass Energy Europe ÔÇô BEE project is to improve the accuracy and comparability of future biomass resource assessments for energy by reducing heterogeneity, increasing harmonisation and exchanging knowledge. One of the main results within the project is the development of the Methods Handbook for biomass potential assessment, which contains detailed description of the proposed methodology based on type of biomass and type of analysis (statistical, spatially explicit, integrated and others). The main objective of the Illustration case for Croatia performed within the BEE project is to estimate the energy and technical potential of fast-growing broadleaved species energy plantations on abandoned land or on land where agricultural production is not profitable. The methodology utilised is based on the BEE Methods Handbook. The main source of data used is contained within the Basic pedological map of the Republic Croatia, which forms the basis for the estimation of soil suitability for any kind of designated utilization. The theoretical potential for short rotation energy crops production in Croatia was estimated as following: ÔÇó Forest area suitable for energy crops ÔÇô a total of 51 200 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing in total 470 200 t DM/y or 8,7 PJ ÔÇó Agricultural areas with moderately suitable soils and limited soil suitability ÔÇô a total of 617 000 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing a total of 7 404 000 t DM/y or 136,2 PJ The technical potential for short rotation energy crops production in Croatia was estimated as following: ÔÇó Forest area suitable for energy crops ÔÇô a total of 46 850 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing in total 430 000 t DM/y or 7,9 PJ ÔÇó Agricultural areas with moderately suitable soils and limited soil suitability ÔÇô a total of 235 650 ha was estimated to be suitable for SRC, producing a total of 2 827 800 t DM/y or 52,1 PJ In spite of the considerable potential for short rotation energy crops production, currently a very small amount of the available area is utilised in Croatia. The issues and problems to be addressed in order to increase this production include a change in policy approach, especially aimed at small landowners, introduction of incentives and subsidies, lack of knowledge and experience in growing energy crops and generally a lack of cooperation between relevant stakeholders.Osnovni cilj projekta FP7 Biomass Energy Europe ÔÇô BEE je pobolj┼íati to─Źnost i mogu─çnost usporedbe budu─çih procjena potencijala biomase za proizvodnju energije, uz smanjenje heterogenosti, pove─çanje harmoniziranosti te razmjenu znanja. Jedan od glavnih rezultata projekta je razvoj priru─Źnika (handbook) o metodologijama za procjenu potencijala biomase, koji sadr┼żi detaljan opis predlo┼żene metodologije u ovisnosti o vrsti biomase i tipu analize (statisti─Źki, prostorno eksplicitni, integrirani i drugi). Glavni cilj Ilustrativnog primjera (Illustration Case) za Hrvatsku, a koji je proveden u sklopu BEE projekta, je izvr┼íiti procjenu potencijala brzorastu─çih nasada na napu┼ítenom zemlji┼ítu, odnosno zemlji┼ítu gdje poljoprivredna proizvodnja nije profitabilna. Kori┼ítena metodologija u skladu je s priru─Źnikom razvijenim u BEE projektu. Osnovni izvor podataka sadr┼żan je u Pedolo┼íkoj karti Hrvatske, koja je predstavljala osnovu za procjenu prikladnosti tla za bilo koju vrstu primjene. Teoretski potencijal brzorastu─çih nasada u Hrvatskoj procijenjen je na sljede─çe iznose: ÔÇó Povr┼íina ┼íuma i ┼íumskog zemlji┼íta prikladnog za brzorastu─çe nasade: ukupno 51 200 ha, ukupna proizvodnja 470 200 t suhe tvari godi┼ínje, odnosno 8,7 PJ ÔÇó Povr┼íina poljoprivrednog zemlji┼íta sa srednje prikladnim i neprikladnim tlom ÔÇô ukupno 617 000 ha, ukupna proizvodnja 7 404 000 t suhe tvari godi┼ínje, odnosno 136,2 PJ. Tehni─Źki potencijal brzorastu─çih nasada u Hrvatskoj procijenjen je na sljede─çe iznose: ÔÇó Povr┼íina ┼íuma i ┼íumskog zemlji┼íta prikladnog za brzorastu─çe nasade: ukupno 46 850 ha, ukupna proizvodnja 430 000 t suhe tvari godi┼ínje, odnosno 7,9 PJ ÔÇó Povr┼íina poljoprivrednog zemlji┼íta sa srednje prikladnim i neprikladnim tlom ÔÇô ukupno 235 650 ha, ukupna proizvodnja 2 827 800 t suhe tvari godi┼ínje, odnosno 52,1 PJ. Unato─Ź zna─Źajnom potencijalu brzorastu─çih nasada, trenutno se koristi vrlo mali iznos raspolo┼żive povr┼íine. Problemi i prepreke koje je potrebno ukloniti kako bi se iskori┼ítavanje brzorastu─çih nasada pove─çalo, uklju─Źuje promjene u cjelopnoj politici, posebice prema malim zemljoposjednicima, uvo─Ĺenje financijskih poticaja, nedostatak znanja i iskustva u uzgoju brzorastu─çih nasada te op─çenito nedostatak suradnje izme─Ĺu relevantnih dionika

    A Sustainability Framework for Enhancing the Long-Term Success of LULUCF Projects

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    Collateral impacts of LULUCF projects, especially those concerning social and environmental aspects, have been recognised as important by the Marrakech Accords. The same applies to the necessity of assessing and, if possible, of quantifying the magnitude of these impacts. This article aims to define, clarify and structure the relevant social, economic and environmental issues to be addressed and to give examples of indicators that ought to be included in the planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and ex post evaluation of LULUCF projects. This is being done by providing a conceptual framework for the assessment of the sustainability of such projects that can be used as a checklist when dealing with concrete projects, and that in principle is applicable to both Annex I and non-Annex I countries. Finally, a set of recommendations is provided to further develop and promote the proposed framework.LULUCF projects, CDM, Kyoto Protocol, Sustainability, Socio-economic impacts, Environmental impacts

    Workshop Data Gathering on Renewable Energies for New Member States and Candidate Countries

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    The present Proceedings include the presentations made at the Workshop Data Gathering on Renewable Energies for New Member States and Candidate Countries, which was held on 15-16 November 2006 in Cavtat-Dubrovnik, Croatia. The workshop was organised by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission - Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Renewable Energies Unit Action: Scientific Technical Reference System on Renewable Energy and Energy End-use Efficiency, in cooperation with the Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Croatia. The primary aim of workshop was the collection of the data on the latest achievements in the field of Renewable Energy in the New Member States and Candidate Countries. The governmental and institutional specialists and scientists in the field of sustainable energy development presented the latest information and on RES development at EU level and market developments in their own countries. The presence, for the first time of the specialists from West Balkan Countries at a workshop organised by JRC for RES was an important extra added value. The key note speeches of the experts from European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) and International Energy Agency (IEA) provided a general view on the latest data on the trends and developments of RES at international level. The completeness of presentations, the wealth of newest, updated and complementary information on RES brought together by the workshop participants, contributed to the achievements of the meeting objectives and represents a great success.JRC.H.8-Renewable energie

    Impacts of EmissionTrading Markets on Competitiveness of Forestry Biomass in Croatia

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    Pove─çanje udjela obnovljivih izvora energije u ukupnoj ener get skoj bilanci, jedan je od strate┼íkih ciljeva sve ve─çeg broja zemalja. Hrvatska se potpisivanjem me─Ĺunarodnih sporazuma (npr. Kyoto protokol) te sukladno za konodavstvu i priklju─Źivanju u EU, obvezala na poduzimanje konkretnih ko raka u pove─çanju kori┼ítenja obnovljivih izvora energije, sukladno paradigmi ÔÇťodr┼żivog razvojaÔÇŁ. Biomasa je obnovljivi izvor energije s najve─çim potencija lom u Hrvatskoj. Cilj ovoga rada je istra┼żiti utjecaj Europske sheme trgovanja emisijama (EU ETS sheme) i fleksibilnih mehanizama Kyotskog protokola ÔÇô mehanizam Zajedni─Źke implementacije (engl.Joint Implementation, JI) i Mehanizam ─Źis tog razvoja (engl.Clean Development Mechanism, CDM) na konkurentnost proizvodnje energije iz biomase. Osnovna prednost biomase u odnosu na fo silne energente je u tome, ┼íto se sagorijevanje biomase u svrhu proizvodnje ener gije smatra tehnologijom bez CO2emisija, budu─çi da biomasa tijekom ras ta ve┼że CO2u procesu fotosinteze. EU ETS ograni─Źava koli─Źinu emisija na nacionalnoj razini i na razini po jedinog postrojenja. Svako postrojenje ima odre─Ĺenu koli─Źinu emisijskih prava tj. kvotu kojom raspola┼że, a trgovanje izme─Ĺu postrojenja omogu─çuje za dovoljenje vlastite kvote kupnjom emisijskih prava na tr┼żi┼ítu. JI i CDM pro jekti predstavljaju fleksibilne Kyoto mehanizme, koji omogu─çuju ulaganje u projekte smanjenja emisija izvan zemlje ulaga─Źa. Koli─Źina emisija smanjena u tim projektima koristi se za zadovoljenje kvota zemlje ulaga─Źa, a cijenu CO2 emisija po toni iz takvih projekata odre─Ĺuje tr┼żi┼íte. Ograni─Źenje koli─Źine emi sija koju pojedino postrojenje ili dr┼żava smiju emitirati, dovodi do pove─çanja konkurentnosti niskouglji─Źnih tehnologija. Pri iskori┼ítenju i gospodarenju ┼íumama nastaju velike koli─Źine ┼íumske bio mase koje se mogu upotrijebiti za proizvodnju energije. Dodatna mogu─çnost iskori┼ítenja biomase, ostvariva je osnivanjem bioenergetskih planta┼ża i proiz vodnjom biomase ┼íumskih vrsta drve─ça u kulturama kratkih ophodnji (KKO). U radu je prikazan matemati─Źko ekonomski model, pomo─çu kojega je mo gu─çe istra┼żiti utjecaj cijene CO2emisija na investicijske odluke o gradnji novih elektrana ili o promjeni goriva u postoje─çim elektranama, odnosno istra┼żiti pri kojim cijenama prava na emisiju biomasa postaje konkurentna drugim tehnologijama. Promjena cijene CO2emisija utje─Źe na kratkoro─Źne (KGT) i dugoro─Źne grani─Źne tro┼íkove (DGT) proizvodnje elektri─Źne energije, pri ─Źemu odluka o promjeni goriva u postoje─çoj elektrani ovisi o kretanju krat koro─Źnih grani─Źnih tro┼íkova, dok o dugoro─Źnim grani─Źnim tro┼íkovima ovisi investicijska odluka prilikom izgradnje novih elektrana. Rezultati primijenjenog modela govore kako je u postoje─çim elektranama (usporedba KGT) uporaba biomase kao goriva konkurentnija od uporabe plina ─Źak i bez poticajne cijene od prodaje elektri─Źne energije iz obnovljivih izvora (feed-in tarifom), dok je biomasa konkurentnija od ugljena pri cijeni emisijskih prava vi┼íoj od 26 ÔéČ/tCO2. Prilikom dono┼íenja odluke o investiranju u novu elektranu (usporedba DGT) s postoje─çom feed-in tarifom, investiranje u izgradnju elektrane na biomasu je isplativija odluka od investiranja u elek tranu na ugljen ili plin (pri ni┼żoj cijeni biomase) dok je pri vi┼íoj cijeni bio mase ona isplativija kod cijene emisijskih prava vi┼íe od 21 ÔéČ/tCO2.A rising share of renewable energy sources in the overall ene rgy balance is one of the strategic goals of a growing number of countries. By signing international agreements (e.g. the Kyoto Protocol), and in accordance with the legislature and accession to the EU, Croatia undertook the obligation to make concrete steps and increase the use of renewable energy sources, as stated by the paradigm ÔÇťsustainable developmentÔÇŁ. In Croatia, biomass is a renewable energy source with the greatest potential. The goal of this work is to explore the impact of the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS Scheme) and flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Pro tocol ÔÇô the Joint Implementation Mechanism, JI, and the Clean Development Mechanism, CDM, ÔÇô on the competitiveness of biomass energy production. Compared to fossil fuels, the advantage of biomass is that energy from bio mass combustion is considered CO2free technology, since biomass sequesters CO2as part of photosynthesis. The EU ETS restricts emission amounts at the national level and at the level of single installation. Every industrial operator is allocated a certain amount of emission allowances. In order to satisfy their needs, the operators may trade with their allowances and purchase emission allowances on the market. The JI and CDM projects represent flexible Kyoto mechanisms which allow investment in emissions reduction outside the investing country. The amount of emissions reduced in such projects is used to satisfy the allowances of the investing countries, while the price of CO2emissions per ton is determi ned by the market. An allocated amount of emissions which an installation or a country may emit increases the competitiveness of low-carbon technologies. Forest management and exploatation produces large quantities of forest biomass, which can be used for energy production. Biomass can additionally be generated by the establishment of bioenergy plantations and biomass pro duction in short rotation crops (SRC) of forest tree species. The article presents a mathematical economic model which explores the im pact of CO2prices on investment decisions related to the construction of new electrical power plants or a change of fuels in the existing plants. The model determines emissions allowance prices at which biomass becomes more com┬şpetitive than other technologies. Changes in CO2prices affect short run margi nal costs (SRMC) and long run marginal costs (LRMC) of electrical energy production, where a decision on the replacement of fuel in the existing plant depends on trends in short run marginal costs, whereas an investment decision to construct new electrical plants depends on long run marginal costs. According to the results of the applied model, biomass fuel in the existing plants (comparison of SRMC) is more competitive than gas even with minimal biomass prices and no additional CO2allowance price or feed-in tariffs. With CO2prices larger than 26 ÔéČ/t CO2, biomass becomes more competitive than gas and coal for its minimal price, while for its maximal price it is more com petitive at CO2prices larger than 21 ÔéČ/t CO2

    ERNEUERBARE ENERGIEQUELLEN UND ENERGETISCHE WIRKSAMKEIT. EINE UMFRAGE ZU EINSTELLUNGEN UND MEINUNGEN DER BEV├ľLKERUNG VON ZAGREB UND RIJEKA

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    U ─Źlanku se iznose rezultati anketnog istra┼żivanja stavova i mi┼íljenja o obnovljivim izvorima i energetskoj efikasnosti, provedenog u ljeto 2003. godine na slu─Źajnom uzorku od 1500 stanovnika Zagreba (900) i Rijeke (600). Vi┼íekriterijska usporedba razli─Źitih izvora energije pokazuje da se obnovljivi izvori smatraju povoljnijima za okoli┼í, sigurnijima, jeftinijima i va┼żnijima za energetsku nezavisnost Hrvatske, dok se za neobnovljive izvore procjenjuje da daju vi┼íe energije i vi┼íe doprinose lokalnoj zajednici. Ispitanici iskazuju izrazitu sklonost obnovljivim izvorima (85% smatra da bi ih u Hrvatskoj trebalo koristiti vi┼íe nego danas) i znatnu spremnost da njihovu ve─çem kori┼ítenju i sami doprinesu. Dvije tre─çine ispitanika spremno je pla─çati ne┼íto ve─çu cijenu elektri─Źne energije iz obnovljivih izvora. Biodizel bi kupovali gotovi svi koji ga mogu koristiti za pogon svojih vozila, pri ─Źemu ga je ─Źetvrtina spremna platiti ne┼íto skuplje, a 14% kupovalo bi ga samo kad bi bio ne┼íto jeftiniji od standardnog dizela. Velika ve─çina (84%) ispitanika spremna je sudjelovati u prikupljanju otpadnog ulje radi proizvodnje biodizela. Me─Ĺu razli─Źitim mjerama za poticanje ┼ítednje energije ve─çina ispitanika nije spremna podr┼żati jedino uvo─Ĺenje ekolo┼íkog poreza da ku─çanstva. Prema mi┼íljenju velike ve─çine ispitanika (92%), u razvoju energetskog sektora u Hrvatskoj prednost treba dati onim izvorima energije koji imaju najmanji negativan utjecaj na okoli┼í, ─Źak i uz pretpostavku da je energija iz njih skuplja.The paper presents results of the research of attitudes and opinions on renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. The research was conducted in summer 2003, on random sample of 1500 residents of two Croatian urban centers, Zagreb (900) and Rijeka (600). Multi-criterion assessment of various energy sources shows that renewable sources are perceived to be better for the environment, safer, cheaper and more important for national self-reliance in energy supply, while non-renewable sources are ranked higher regarding energy abundance and various positive economic affects. Attitude towards renewable sources are extremely favorable - 85% of the respondents believe that Croatia should rely more on those sources. Considerable willingness for personal contribution to higher use of renewable sources is expressed as well: two thirds of the respondents are willing to pay more for green power, and virtually all those who use diesel fuel are willing to buy biodiesel. The majority of respondents (84%) are also willing to collect waste oil in their households for biodiesel production. Support for various energy conservation measures is also high, except for the introduction of environmental tax for households. Great majority of the respondents (92%) share opinion that future development of energy sector in Croatia should rely on the least environmentally threatening sources, even if it assumes higher energy price.Im vorliegenden Artikel werden die Ergebnisse einer Umfrage zu den Einstellungen und Meinungen ├╝ber die erneuerbaren Energiequellen und die energetische Wirksamkeit dargestellt, die im Sommer 2003 an einer Stichprobe von 1500 Personen (900 in Zagreb und 600 in Rijeka) durchgef├╝hrt wurde. Die mehreren Kriterien folgende Einsch├Ątzung unterschiedlicher Energiequellen zeigt, dass die erneuerbaren Energiequellen als umweltfreundlich angesehen werden und dass sie f├╝r eine energetische Selbst├Ąndigkeit Kroatiens sicherer, billiger und am wichtigsten sind. F├╝r die nicht-erneuerbaren Energiequellen wird hingegen behauptet, dass sie mehr Energie geben und besser zur lokalen Gemeinschaft beitragen. Die Befragten zeigen eine ausgesprochene Vorliebe f├╝r erneuerbare Quellen (85% der Befragten glaubt, dass diese Quellen in Kroatien in einem gr├Â├čeren Ausma├č ben├╝tzt werden m├╝ssten, als es heute der Fall ist) sowie eine gr├Â├čere Bereitschaft, diese Quellen auch selbst zu ben├╝tzen. Zwei Drittel der Befragten erkl├Ąrte sich bereit, einen um Einiges h├Âheren Preis f├╝r den elektrischen Strom aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen zu zahlen. Fast alle Befragten w├╝rden den BioBDiesel kaufen, wobei ein Viertel der Befragten auch ein bisschen mehr zahlen w├╝rde, und 14% der Befragten w├╝rde ihn kaufen, nur wenn er um Einiges billiger als Standard-Diesel w├Ąre. Die meisten Befragten (84%) erkl├Ąrte sich bereit, am Sammeln von Abfall├Âl zwecks Herstellung von BioBDiesel teilzunehmen. Was die verschiedenen Ma├čnahmen zur F├Ârderung des Energiesparens betrifft, sprachen sich die meisten Befragten gegen die Einf├╝hrung von ├ľkoBSteuern aus. 92% aller Befragten sind der Meinung, dass bei der Entwicklung des energetischen Sektors in Kroatien jene Energiequellen bevorzugt werden m├╝ssten, deren Einfluss auf die Umwelt am wenigsten negativ ist, sogar unter der Voraussetzung, dass die aus ihnen gewonnene Energie teurer w├Ąre

    INFORMIERTHEIT ├ťBER ERNEUERBARE ENERGIEQUELLEN UND ENERGETISCHE WIRKSAMKEIT

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    U ─Źlanku se prezentiraju neki rezultati anketnog istra┼żivanja, provedenog ljeti 2003. godine na uzorku od 1500 ispitanika iz Zagreba (900) i Rijeke (600), koji se odnose na informiranost o proizvodnji energije i njezinu utjecaju na okoli┼í, proizvodnji i potro┼ínji energije u Hrvatskoj te - najve─çim dijelom - energiji biomase. Istra┼żiva─Źki projekt realiziran je suradnjom Energetskog instituta Hrvoje Po┼żar, Zavoda za sociologiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Zagrebu i nevladine organizacije Eko Liburnia. Informiranost je mjerena na dva na─Źina: subjektivnom procjenom samih ispitanika te objektivnim testom konstruiranim za potrebe projekta. Analiza metrijskih karakteristika testa pokazuje da je rije─Ź o instrumentu koji je te┼żinom primjeren op─çoj populaciji, a distribucija na njemu dobivenih rezultata pogodna je za korelacijske i sli─Źne analize. No, instrument je razmjerno heterogen i ne┼íto ni┼że pouzdanosti (KRB20=0.57), ┼íto - uz manje modifikacije nekih ─Źestica - predstavlja prostor njegova pobolj┼íanja u idu─çim primjenama. I objektivni test i skale subjektivne informiranosti pokazuju slabu informiranost ispitanika koja se izra┼żava ve─ç na razini razumijevanja temeljnih pojmova, osobito kada je rije─Ź o kori┼ítenju energije biomase. U zaklju─Źnom dijelu rada ukazuje se na potrebu boljeg informiranja javnosti - ┼íto je nu┼żan preduvjet njezine racionalne podr┼íke ve─çem kori┼ítenju obnovljivih izvora - te se komentiraju rezultati istra┼żivanja koje bi bilo korisno uva┼żiti pri koncipiranju i provedbi budu─çih edukacijskih programa.Paper presents results of a survey research of knowledge regarding environmental impact of energy production, energy production and consumption in Croatia, and renewable energy sources (with focus on biomass). Research was conducted in summer 2003 on random sample of 1500 respondents from two Croatian urban centers - Zagreb and Rijeka, with collaboration of Energy institute Hrvoje Po┼żar, Sociology Department of Zagreb Faculty of Philosophy and NGO Eko Liburnia. The knowledge was measured using self-assessment scales and objective test. The test - being a pioneering attempt in objective measurement of renewable energy sources knowledge in Croatia - shows to be of appropriate overall difficulty for general population, and distribution of results is suitable for correlation analysis and other parametric tests. Possible improvements are concerning relatively low reliability (CRB20=0.57) and heterogeneity (four low correlated factors). Both the test and self-assessment scales indicate poor knowledge, even regarding most basic concepts, with the lowest results obtained on items measuring biomass energy knowledge. Since only well educated public can give rational support for the increased usage of renewable energy sources in Croatia, authors conclude that various education programs are needed and discuss some research results that should be respected in the development of such programs.Im vorliegenden Artikel werden einige Ergebnisse der an einer aus 1500 Personen bestehenden Stichprobe (900 in Zagreb und 600 in Rijeka) durchgef├╝hrten Umfrage dargestellt, die sich auf die Informiertheit ├╝ber Energieherstellung und ihren Einfluss auf die Umwelt sowie auf die Herstellung und Nutzung der Energie in Kroatien und ├╝ber die Biomassenenergie bezieht. Dieses Forschungsprojekt wurde vom Institut f├╝r Energetik "Hrvoje Po┼żar", dem Institut f├╝r Soziologie an der Philosophischen Fakult├Ąt in Zagreb und der NGO Eko-Liburnia durchgef├╝hrt. Die Informiertheit wurde auf zwei Weisen gemessen: durch eine subjektive Einsch├Ątzung der Befragten und durch einen f├╝r das Projekt entworfenen objektiven Test. Die Analyse der metrischen Eigenschaften des Tests zeigt, dass es sich um ein Instrument handelt, das im Hinblick auf seine Komplexit├Ąt eher f├╝r die allgemeine Bev├Âlkerung angemessen ist, w├Ąhrend die Verteilung der durch ihn gewonnenen Ergebnisse bei Korrelations- und ├Ąhnlichen Analysen verwendet werden kann. Das Instrument ist jedoch verh├Ąltnism├Ą├čig heterogen und weniger verl├Ąsslich (KRB20=0.57), was - neben kleineren Modifikationen in einigen Partikeln - einen Spielraum f├╝r Verbesserungen in k├╝nftigen Anwendungen darstellt. Sowohl der objektive Test als auch die Skalen der subjektiven Informiertheit weisen eine schwache Informiertheit der Befragten auf, die schon auf der Ebene des Verst├Ąndnisses der Grundbegriffe zum Ausdruck kommt, besonders wenn es sich um die Nutzung von Biomassenenergie handelt. Im abschlie├čenden Teil der Arbeit wird auf den Bedarf hingewiesen, die ├ľffentlichkeit besser zu informieren, damit sie sich f├╝r erneuerbare Energiequellen einsetzt. Es werden auch Ergebnisse der Befragung kommentiert, die bei der Planung und Durchf├╝hrung k├╝nftiger Bildungsprogamme zu ber├╝cksichtigen w├Ąren

    INTRODUCING BIODIESEL FUEL INTO THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

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    Sa┼żetak Biodizel je motorno gorivo koje se proizvodi esterifikacijom repi─Źinog ulja s metanolom. Mo┼że se koristiti u smjesi s mineralnim dizelom. Biogoriva a posebno biodizel su danas najvrjedniji izvori obnovljive energije. Nacionalne ekonomije povezuju tako poljoprivrednu proizvodnju i proizvodnju energije. U Hrvatskoj nema jo┼í proizvodnje biodizela. Zbog povoljnih klimatskih uvjeta Hrvatska ima zna─Źajni potencijal proizvodnje biodizela iz repi─Źinog ulja. Pod utjecajem kretanja u razvijenim europskim zemljama te na osnovi 18-mjese─Źnog rada na nacionalnom energetskom programu BIOEN (program kori┼ítenja energije iz biomase i otpada), te radi stimulativnih mjera hrvatske vlade mo┼że se o─Źekivati pove─çanje nasada pod uljaricama, a posebno uljane repice. Energetske potrebe hrvatske poljoprivrede iznose 105000 t goriva godi{nje (bez procesiranja). U slu─Źaju kori┼ítenja biodizela trebalo bi za proizvodnju ekvivalentne koli─Źine repi─Źinog ulja koristiti 120000 ha obradivog zemlji┼íta. Ukupne obradive povr┼íine u Hrvatskoj iznose 1632750 ha. U 1993. u Hrvatskoj su uvedene nove visokokvalitetne sorte uljane repice, tzv. "00"-kultivari. S novim "00"-sortama prinosi su u prosjeku porasli sa 2,2 t/ha na 3,2 t/ha. Potencijalna potro┼ínja biodizela u Hrvatskoj procjenjuje se pribli┼żno na najmanje 30000 t/god. metilnog estera repi─Źinog ulja. O─Źekivane ekonomske, socijalne i ekolo┼íke koristi na nacionalnoj razini treba dosti─çi kroz stvaranje doma─çe proizvodnje biodizela i kroz podupiranje ┼íiroke upotrebe biodizela. Prvi korak je na razini testova, tako da je u planiranju vi┼íe regionalnih projekata proizvodnje repi─Źinog ulja kao i eksperimentalno postrojenje za esterifikaciju. Kori┼ítenje biodizela ispitat ─çe se u realnim eksploatacijskim uvjetima. Hrvatska vlada treba uspostaviti porezne i zakonske uvjete koji podupiru proizvodnju i kori┼ítenje biodizela. Isto tako treba formirati hrvatski standard za biodizelsko gorivo u skladu s europskim standardima i direktivama.Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is produced from rapeseedoil by esterification with methanol having the properties that are comparable to petroleum diesel fuel. It can be used as blend with mineral diesel fuel. Biofuels and especially biodiesel today represent the most valuable form of renewable energy sources. In majority of European countries biodiesel has privileged tax treatment. National economies are connecting agricultural production with energy production. In Croatia, at present, there is no biodiesel production. Due to its favourable climate conditions, Croatia has significant potential for biodiesel production from rapeseedoil. Under the influence of modern movements in developed European countries and also based on the 18-month work in the frame of the National Energy Programme BIOEN (Programme of using energy from biomass and waste), and due to stimulative measures of the Croatian government, we could expect an increase of oilseed plants, especially rapeseed. Total demands of Croatian agricultural production on energy are 105.000 t of fuel without processing losses. In the case of using biodiesel as fuel, for the production of rapeseedoil of an equivalent amount one would need 120.000 hectares of arable land. The entire Croatian arable area is 1.632.750 hectares. In 1993, in Croatia were introduced new high-quality varieties of rapseed, the so called ÔÇť00ÔÇŁ-cultivars. With new ÔÇť00ÔÇŁ-varieties, yield was in average increased from 2.2 t/ha to 3.2 t/ha. The rough estimate of the potential demand on biodiesel in Croatia is at least 30000 t/y of rapeseedoil methylester. Expected economic, social end ecological benefits on national level registered in other european countries should be achieved by establishing of domestic biodiesel production and by promoting the broad use of biodiesel. The first step will be on the test level, so that several regional projects for rapeseedoil production are in preparation, as well as an experimental plant for esterification. The use of biodiesel will be examined under real test run conditions. The Croatian government should establish fiscal and legal conditions which promote the production and use of rapeseedoil and biodiesel. Also a Croatian fuel quality standard for biodiesel should be established in accordance with European standards and directives
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