478 research outputs found

    Overexpression and alternative splicing of NF-YA in breast cancer

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    NF-Y is a CCAAT-binding trimeric transcription factor, whose regulome, interactome and oncogenic potential point to direct involvement in cellular transformation. Yet little is known about the levels of NF-Y subunits in tumors. We focused on breast carcinomas, and analyzed RNA-Seq datasets of TCGA and 54 BRCA cell lines at gene and isoforms level. We partitioned all tumors in the four major subclasses. NF-YA, but not histone-fold subunits NF-YB/NF-YC, is globally overexpressed, correlating with the proliferative Ki67 marker and a common set of 840 genes, with cell-cycle, metabolism GO terms. Their promoters are enriched in NF-Y, GC-rich and E2F sites. Surprisingly, there is an isoform switch, with the "short" isoform -NF-YAs- becoming predominant in tumors. E2F genes are also overexpressed in BRCA, but no switch in isoforms is observed. In Basal-like Claudinlow cell lines and tumors, expression of NF-YAl -long- isoform is high, together with 11 typical EMT markers and low levels of basal Keratins. Analysis of Progression-Free-Intervals indicates that tumors with unbalance of NF-YA isoforms ratios have worst clinical outcomes. The data suggest that NF-YA overexpression increases CCAAT-dependent, pro-growth genes in BRCA. NF-YAs is associated with a proliferative signature, but high levels of NF-YAl signal loss of epithelial features, EMT and acquisition of a more aggressive behavior in a subset of Claudinlow Basal-like tumors

    An acetylation-mono-ubiquitination switch on lysine 120 of H2B.

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    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones are crucial for transcriptional control, defining positive and negative chromatin territories. A switch of opposing functional significance between acetylation and methylation occurs on many residues. Lysine 120 of H2B is modified by two PTMs: ubiquitination, which is required for further trans-tail H3 methylations and elongation, and acetylation, whose role is less clear. ChIP-Seq with MNase I-treated chromatin indicates that H2BK120ac is present on nucleosomes immediately surrounding the TSS of transcribed or poised units, but not in core promoters. In kinetic ChIP analysis of ER-stress inducible genes, H2BK120ac precedes activation and H2B-ub deposition. Using in vitro acetylation assays, pharmacologic inhibition and RNAi, we established that KAT3 is responsible for H2BK120ac. Interestingly, the global levels of H2B-ub decreased in KAT3-inactivated cells. However, RNF20 recruitment was not impaired by KAT3-inactivation. Our data point at acetylation of Lysine 120 of H2B as an early mark of poised or active state and establish a temporal sequence between acetylation and mono-ubiquitination of this H2B residue

    The Switch from NF-YAl to NF-YAs Isoform Impairs Myotubes Formation

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    NF-YA, the regulatory subunit of the trimeric transcription factor (TF) NF-Y, is regulated by alternative splicing (AS) generating two major isoforms, "long" (NF-YAl) and "short" (NF-YAs). Muscle cells express NF-YAl. We ablated exon 3 in mouse C2C12 cells by a four-guide CRISPR/Cas9n strategy, obtaining clones expressing exclusively NF-YAs (C2-YAl-KO). C2-YAl-KO cells grow normally, but are unable to differentiate. Myogenin and-to a lesser extent, MyoD- levels are substantially lower in C2-YAl-KO, before and after differentiation. Expression of the fusogenic Myomaker and Myomixer genes, crucial for the early phases of the process, is not induced. Myomaker and Myomixer promoters are bound by MyoD and Myogenin, and Myogenin overexpression induces their expression in C2-YAl-KO. NF-Y inactivation reduces MyoD and Myogenin, but not directly: the Myogenin promoter is CCAAT-less, and the canonical CCAAT of the MyoD promoter is not bound by NF-Y in vivo. We propose that NF-YAl, but not NF-YAs, maintains muscle commitment by indirectly regulating Myogenin and MyoD expression in C2C12 cells. These experiments are the first genetic evidence that the two NF-YA isoforms have functionally distinct roles

    Relativistic effects and two-body currents in 2H(e⃗,e′p)n^{2}H(\vec{e},e^{\prime}p)n using out-of-plane detection

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    Measurements of the 2H(e⃗,e′p)n{^2}H(\vec{e},e^{\prime}p)n reaction were performed using an 800-MeV polarized electron beam at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator and with the out-of-plane magnetic spectrometers (OOPS). The longitudinal-transverse, fLTf_{LT} and fLT′f_{LT}^{\prime}, and the transverse-transverse, fTTf_{TT}, interference responses at a missing momentum of 210 MeV/c were simultaneously extracted in the dip region at Q2^2=0.15 (GeV/c)2^2. On comparison to models of deuteron electrodisintegration, the data clearly reveal strong effects of relativity and final-state interactions, and the importance of the two-body meson-exchange currents and isobar configurations. We demonstrate that these effects can be disentangled and studied by extracting the interference response functions using the novel out-of-plane technique.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, and submitted to PRL for publicatio

    WARP: a WIMP double phase Argon detector

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    The WARP programme for dark matter search with a double phase argon detector is presented. In such a detector both excitation and ionization produced by an impinging particle are evaluated by the contemporary measurement of primary scintillation and secondary (proportional) light signal, this latter being produced by extracting and accelerating ionization electrons in the gas phase. The proposed technique, verified on a 2.3 liters prototype, could be used to efficiently discriminate nuclear recoils, induced by WIMP's interactions, and measure their energy spectrum. An overview of the 2.3 liters results and of the proposed 100 liters detector is shown.Comment: Proceeding for IDM200

    A high definition look at the NF-Y regulome reveals genome-wide associations with selected transcription factors

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    NF-Y is a trimeric transcription factor (TF), binding the CCAAT box element, for which several results suggest a pioneering role in activation of transcription. In this work, we integrated 380 ENCODE ChIP-Seq experiments for 154 TFs and cofactors with sequence analysis, protein-protein interactions and RNA profiling data, in order to identify genome-wide regulatory modules resulting from the co-association of NF-Y with other TFs. We identified three main degrees of co-association with NF-Y for sequence-specific TFs. In the most relevant one, we found TFs having a significant overlap with NF-Y in their DNA binding loci, some with a precise spacing of binding sites with respect to the CCAAT box, others (FOS, Sp1/2, RFX5, IRF3, PBX3) mostly lacking their canonical binding site and bound to arrays of well spaced CCAAT boxes. As expected, NF-Y binding also correlates with RNA Pol II General TFs and with subunits of complexes involved in the control of H3K4 methylations. Co-association patterns are confirmed by protein-protein interactions, and correspond to specific functional categorizations and expression level changes of target genes following NF-Y inactivation. These data define genome-wide rules for the organization of NF-Y-centered regulatory modules, supporting a model of distinct categorization and synergy with well defined sets of TFs

    Characterization of a clonal human colon adenocarcinoma line intrinsically resistant to doxorubicin.

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    Intrinsic low-level resistance to anti-cancer drugs is a major problem in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. To address the problem presented by intrinsically resistant tumours, we have isolated two monoclonal lines from LoVo human colon adenocarcinoma cells: LoVo/C7, which is intrinsically resistant to doxorubicin (DOX); and LoVo/C5, which shows the same resistance index for DOX as the mixed parental cell population. For comparison, we have included in the study a LoVo-resistant line selected by continuous exposure to DOX and expressing a typical multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. In these cell lines we have studied the expression and/or activity of a number of proteins, including P-glycoprotein 170 (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), lung resistance-related protein (LRP), glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzymes and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, which have been implicated in anti-cancer drug resistance. Intracellular DOX distribution has been assessed by confocal microscopy. The results of the present study indicate that resistance in LoVo/C7 cells cannot be attributed to alterations in P-gp, LRP or GSH/GSH-dependent enzyme levels. Increased expression of MRP, accompanied by alterations in the subcellular distribution of DOX, has been observed in LoVo/C7 cells; changes in PKC isoform pattern have been detected in both intrinsically and pharmacologically resistant cells

    A Measurement of the Interference Structure Function, R_LT, for the 12C(e,e'p) reaction in the Quasielastic Region

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    The coincidence cross-section and the interference structure function, R_LT, were measured for the 12C(e,e'p) 11B reaction at quasielastic kinematics and central momentum transfer of q=400 MeV/c. The measurement was at an opening angle of theta_pq=11 degrees, covering a range in missing energy of E_m = 0 to 65 MeV. The R_LT structure function is found to be consistent with zero for E_m > 50 MeV, confirming an earlier study which indicated that R_L vanishes in this region. The integrated strengths of the p- and s-shell are compared with a Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. The s-shell strength and shape are compared with a Hartree Fock-Random Phase Approximation calculation. The DWIA calculation overestimates the cross sections for p- and s-shell proton knockout as expected, but surprisingly agrees with the extracted R_LT value for both shells. The HF-RPA calculation describes the data more consistently, which may be due to the inclusion of 2-body currents in this calculation.Comment: 8 Pages LaTex, 5 postscript figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    LTR12 promoter activation in a broad range of human tumor cells by HDAC inhibition

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    A considerable proportion of the human genome consists of transposable elements, including the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of endogenous retroviruses. During evolution, such LTRs were occasionally inserted upstream of protein-coding genes, contributing to their regulation. We previously identified the LTR12 from endogenous retrovirus 9 (ERV9) as a regulator of proapoptotic genes such as TP63 or TNFRSF10B. The promoter activity of LTR12 is largely confined to the testes, silenced in testicular carcinoma, but reactivated in testicular cancer cells by broad-range histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Here we show that inhibition of HDAC1-3 is sufficient for LTR12 activation. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors induce LTR12 activity not only in testicular cancer cells, but also in cells derived from many additional tumor species. Finally, we characterize the transcription factor NF-Y as a mediator of LTR12 promoter activity and HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis, in the context of widespread genomic binding of NF-Y to specific LTR12 sequences. Thus, HDAC inhibitor-driven LTR12 activation represents a generally applicable means to induce proapoptotic genes in human cancer cells
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