90 research outputs found

    The mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica protects barley roots from a loss of antioxidant capacity caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium culmorum

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    Fusarium culmorum causes root rot in barley (Hordeum vulgare), resulting in severely reduced plant growth and yield. Pretreatment of roots with chlamydospores of the mutualistic root-colonizing basidiomycete Piriformospora indica (Agaricomycotina) prevented necrotization of root tissues and plant growth retardation commonly associated with Fusarium root rot. Quantification of Fusarium infections with a real-time PCR assay revealed a correlation between root rot symptoms and the relative amount of fungal DNA. Fusarium-infected roots showed reduced levels of ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), along with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR). Consistent with this, Fusarium-infected roots showed elevated levels of lipid hydroperoxides and decreased ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of ascorbate and glutathione. In clear contrast, roots treated with P. indica prior to inoculation with F. culmorum showed levels of ascorbate and GSH that were similar to controls. Likewise, lipid peroxidation and the overall reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities were largely attenuated by P. indica in roots challenged by F. culmorum. These results suggest that P. indica protects roots from necrotrophic pathogens at least partly, through activating the plantÔÇÖs antioxidant capacity

    The creation of genetic basic population of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) based on study of genetic variation in brood stocks using microsatellite

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    In order to perform the project, 446 samples of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) from 24 different regions in Iran were collected. About 2-3 g of caudal fin samples was collected from each specimen and preserved in absolute ethyl alcohol and then transferred to the genetic laboratory. Genomic DNA was extracted using the phenol-chloroform method and then DNA content and quality was determined using spectrophotometry and agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of genomic DNA fin samples was carried out using 10 pairs of microsatellite primers. All PCR products were electrophoresed on 6% polyacrylamide gel and stained with silver nitrate. Following the scoring of alleles, all parameters including allelic frequency, effective number of allele, observed and expected heterozygosity, shanon index, measurement of similarity and genetic distance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Fst , Rst and gene flow were calculated using AMOVA analysis in the GenAlex and Popgene programs. The results showed that 8 pairs of microsatellite primers were polymorphic. In total, 50 alleles were determined with the range size of 64-280 bp. The locus omyf had maximum number of allele (26) and loci OTSG 474 and Strurruta58 had minimum number of allele (5). The observed heterozygosity was between 0.86 and 0.964. Hardy-Weinberg departure was observed for all loci from farms 18, 15, 4, E20 and 21 and were disequilibrium (P<0.05). The farms 14, 8, 7 and 6 were equilibrium at 3 loci, but showed disequilibrium in other loci. The other farms were equilibrium at 1 or 2 loci and disequilibrium at 8 or 9 loci. The FST results showed that maximum FST (0.24) were between farms 1 and 11in which had minimum of gene flow (3.7). Minimum FST (0.04) were between farms 8 and 9 in which had maximum of gene flow (346). Based on the results of AMOVA analysis, significant differences were detected between all farms (P<0.01). Furthermore, based on Nei 's standard (1972) maximum genetic distance (0.89) were observed between farms 2 and 11 and maximum genetic similarity (0.15) were detected between farms 3 and 4. This result suggests that the unique genetic variation of rainbow trout in hatchery farms of Iran represents a highly valuable genetic resource and provide useful information for creating a based population in the future breeding programs

    Controlling interferometric properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide

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    A study of reflective interference spectroscopy [RIfS] properties of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide [AAO] with the aim to develop a reliable substrate for label-free optical biosensing is presented. The influence of structural parameters of AAO including pore diameters, inter-pore distance, pore length, and surface modification by deposition of Au, Ag, Cr, Pt, Ni, and TiO2 on the RIfS signal (Fabry-Perot fringe) was explored. AAO with controlled pore dimensions was prepared by electrochemical anodization of aluminium using 0.3 M oxalic acid at different voltages (30 to 70 V) and anodization times (10 to 60 min). Results show the strong influence of pore structures and surface modifications on the interference signal and indicate the importance of optimisation of AAO pore structures for RIfS sensing. The pore length/pore diameter aspect ratio of AAO was identified as a suitable parameter to tune interferometric properties of AAO. Finally, the application of AAO with optimised pore structures for sensing of a surface binding reaction of alkanethiols (mercaptoundecanoic acid) on gold surface is demonstrated

    Editing of the urease gene by CRISPR-Cas in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

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    Background: CRISPR-Cas is a recent and powerful addition to the molecular toolbox which allows programmable genome editing. It has been used to modify genes in a wide variety of organisms, but only two alga to date. Here we present a methodology to edit the genome of Thalassiosira pseudonana, a model centric diatom with both ecological significance and high biotechnological potential, using CRISPR-Cas. Results: A single construct was assembled using Golden Gate cloning. Two sgRNAs were used to introduce a precise 37 nt deletion early in the coding region of the urease gene. A high percentage of bi-allelic mutations (ÔëĄ61.5%) were observed in clones with the CRISPR-Cas construct. Growth of bi-allelic mutants in urea led to a significant reduction in growth rate and cell size compared to growth in nitrate. Conclusions: CRISPR-Cas can precisely and efficiently edit the genome of T. pseudonana. The use of Golden Gate cloning to assemble CRISPR-Cas constructs gives additional flexibility to the CRISPR-Cas method and facilitates modifications to target alternative genes or species

    Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa

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    This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi

    Notes for genera: basal clades of Fungi (including Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota)

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    Compared to the higher fungi (Dikarya), taxonomic and evolutionary studies on the basal clades of fungi are fewer in number. Thus, the generic boundaries and higher ranks in the basal clades of fungi are poorly known. Recent DNA based taxonomic studies have provided reliable and accurate information. It is therefore necessary to compile all available information since basal clades genera lack updated checklists or outlines. Recently, Tedersoo et al. (MycoKeys 13:1--20, 2016) accepted Aphelidiomycota and Rozellomycota in Fungal clade. Thus, we regard both these phyla as members in Kingdom Fungi. We accept 16 phyla in basal clades viz. Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. Thus, 611 genera in 153 families, 43 orders and 18 classes are provided with details of classification, synonyms, life modes, distribution, recent literature and genomic data. Moreover, Catenariaceae Couch is proposed to be conserved, Cladochytriales Mozl.-Standr. is emended and the family Nephridiophagaceae is introduced

    Cardiopoietic cell therapy for advanced ischemic heart failure: results at 39 weeks of the prospective, randomized, double blind, sham-controlled CHART-1 clinical trial

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    Cardiopoietic cells, produced through cardiogenic conditioning of patients' mesenchymal stem cells, have shown preliminary efficacy. The Congestive Heart Failure Cardiopoietic Regenerative Therapy (CHART-1) trial aimed to validate cardiopoiesis-based biotherapy in a larger heart failure cohort
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