119 research outputs found

    Enhanced photoluminescence extraction efficiency from a diamond photonic crystal via leaky modes

    Get PDF
    Two-dimensional photonic crystal can be exploited as the top part of a light source in order to increase its extraction efficiency. Here, we report on the room-temperature intrinsic photoluminescence (PL) behavior of a nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer with diamond columns prepared on the top and periodically ordered into the lattice with square symmetry. Angle-resolved far-field measurements in the Gamma-X crystal direction of broadband visible PL revealed up to six-fold enhancement of extraction efficiency as compared to a smooth NCD layer. A photonic band diagram above the lightcone derived from these measurements is in agreement with the diagram obtained from transmission measurements and simulation, suggesting that the enhancement is primarily due to light's coupling to leaky modes

    Dietary suppression of MHC-II expression in intestinal stem cells enhances intestinal tumorigenesis

    Get PDF
    Little is known about how interactions between diet, immune recognition, and intestinal stem cells (ISCs) impact the early steps of intestinal tumorigenesis. Here, we show that a high fat diet (HFD) reduces the expression of the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) genes in ISCs. This decline in ISC MHC-II expression in a HFD correlates with an altered intestinal microbiome composition and is recapitulated in antibiotic treated and germ-free mice on a control diet. Mechanistically, pattern recognition receptor and IFNg signaling regulate MHC-II expression in ISCs. Although MHC-II expression on ISCs is dispensable for stem cell function in organoid cultures in vitro, upon loss of the tumor suppressor gene Apc in a HFD, MHC-II- ISCs harbor greater in vivo tumor-initiating capacity than their MHC-II+ counterparts, thus implicating a role for epithelial MHC-II in suppressing tumorigenesis. Finally, ISC-specific genetic ablation of MHC-II in engineered Apc-mediated intestinal tumor models increases tumor burden in a cell autonomous manner. These findings highlight how a HFD alters the immune recognition properties of ISCs through the regulation of MHC-II expression in a manner that could contribute to intestinal tumorigenesis

    Effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on stroke and atrial fibrillation in diabetic kidney disease: Results from the CREDENCE trial and meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate or elevated albuminuria increases risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. This study assessed the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on stroke and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL) from CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) and a meta-Analysis of large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of SGLT2i in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: CREDENCE randomized 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease to canagliflozin or placebo. Post hoc, we estimated effects on fatal or nonfatal stroke, stroke subtypes, and intermediate markers of stroke risk including AF/AFL. Stroke and AF/AFL data from 3 other completed large CVOTs and CREDENCE were pooled using random-effects meta-Analysis. RESULTS: In CREDENCE, 142 participants experienced a stroke during follow-up (10.9/1000 patient-years with canagliflozin, 14.2/1000 patient-years with placebo; hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.55-1.08]). Effects by stroke subtypes were: ischemic (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.61-1.28]; n=111), hemorrhagic (HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.19-1.32]; n=18), and undetermined (HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.20-1.46]; n=17). There was no clear effect on AF/AFL (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.53-1.10]; n=115). The overall effects in the 4 CVOTs combined were: Total stroke (HRpooled, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.82-1.12]), ischemic stroke (HRpooled, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.89-1.14]), hemorrhagic stroke (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.30-0.83]), undetermined stroke (HRpooled, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.49-1.51]), and AF/AFL (HRpooled, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.71-0.93]). There was evidence that SGLT2i effects on total stroke varied by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.01), with protection in the lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate (45 mL/min/1.73 m2]) subgroup (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.31-0.79]). CONCLUSIONS: Although we found no clear effect of SGLT2i on total stroke in CREDENCE or across trials combined, there was some evidence of benefit in preventing hemorrhagic stroke and AF/AFL, as well as total stroke for those with lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate. Future research should focus on confirming these data and exploring potential mechanisms

    Studies of new Higgs boson interactions through nonresonant HH production in the b¯bγγ fnal state in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Get PDF
    A search for nonresonant Higgs boson pair production in the b ¯bγγ fnal state is performed using 140 fb−1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This analysis supersedes and expands upon the previous nonresonant ATLAS results in this fnal state based on the same data sample. The analysis strategy is optimised to probe anomalous values not only of the Higgs (H) boson self-coupling modifer κλ but also of the quartic HHV V (V = W, Z) coupling modifer κ2V . No signifcant excess above the expected background from Standard Model processes is observed. An observed upper limit µHH < 4.0 is set at 95% confdence level on the Higgs boson pair production cross-section normalised to its Standard Model prediction. The 95% confdence intervals for the coupling modifers are −1.4 < κλ < 6.9 and −0.5 < κ2V < 2.7, assuming all other Higgs boson couplings except the one under study are fxed to the Standard Model predictions. The results are interpreted in the Standard Model efective feld theory and Higgs efective feld theory frameworks in terms of constraints on the couplings of anomalous Higgs boson (self-)interactions

    Measurement of the H → γ γ and H → ZZ∗ → 4 cross-sections in pp collisions at √s = 13.6 TeV with the ATLAS detector