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    Effect of vane twist on the performance of dome swirlers for gas turbine airblast atomizers

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    For advanced gas turbine engines, two combustor systems, the lean premixed/prevaporized (LPP) and the rich burn/quick quench/lean burn (RQL) offer great potential for reducing NO(x) emissions. An important consideration for either concept is the development of an advanced fuel injection system that will provide a stable, efficient, and very uniform combustion system over a wide operating range. High-shear airblast fuel injectors for gas turbine combustors have exhibited superior atomization and mixing compared with pressure-atomizing fuel injectors. This improved mixing has lowered NO(x) emissions and the pattern factor, and has enabled combustors to alternate fuels while maintaining a stable, efficient combustion system. The performance of high-shear airblast fuel injectors is highly dependent on the design of the dome swirl vanes. The type of swirl vanes most widely used in gas turbine combustors are usually flat for ease of manufacture, but vanes with curvature will, in general, give superior aerodynamic performance. The design and performance of high-turning, low-loss curved dome swirl vanes with twist along the span are investigated. The twist induces a secondary vortex flow pattern which will improve the atomization of the fuel, thereby producing a more uniform fuel-air distribution. This uniform distribution will increase combustion efficiency while lowering NO(x) emissions. A systematic swirl vane design system is presented based on one-, two-, and three-dimensional flowfield calculations, with variations in vane-turning angle, rate of turning, vane solidity, and vane twist as design parameters