15 research outputs found

    ABC transporter architecture and regulatory roles of accessory domains

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    AbstractWe present an overview of the architecture of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and dissect the systems in core and accessory domains. The ABC transporter core is formed by the transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) that constitute the actual translocator. The accessory domains include the substrate-binding proteins, that function as high affinity receptors in ABC type uptake systems, and regulatory or catalytic domains that can be fused to either the TMDs or NBDs. The regulatory domains add unique functions to the transporters allowing the systems to act as channel conductance regulators, osmosensors/regulators, and assemble into macromolecular complexes with specific properties

    Specificity and selectivity determinants of peptide transport in Lactococcus lactis and other microorganisms

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    Peptide transport in microorganisms is important for nutrition of the cell and various signalling processes including regulation of gene expression, sporulation, chemotaxis, competence and virulence development. Peptide transport is mediated via different combinations of ion-linked and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, the latter utilizing single or multiple peptide-binding proteins with overlapping specificities. The paradigm for research on peptide transport is Lactococcus lactis, in which the uptake of peptides containing essential amino acids is vital for growth on milk proteins. Differential expression and characteristics of peptide-binding proteins in several Lactococcus lactis strains resulted in apparent conflicts with older literature. Recent developments and new data now make the pieces of the puzzle fall back into place again and confirm the view that the oligopeptide-binding proteins determine the uptake selectivity of their cognate ABC transporters. Besides reviewing the current data on binding specificity and transport selectivity of peptide transporters in L. lactis, the possible implications for peptide utilization by other bacterial species are discussed.

    The Binding Specificity of OppA Determines the Selectivity of the Oligopeptide ATP-binding Cassette Transporter

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    The purification and functional reconstitution of a five-component oligopeptide ATP-binding cassette transporter with a remarkably wide substrate specificity are described. High-affinity peptide uptake was dependent on liganded substrate-binding protein OppA, which interacts with the translocator OppBCDF with higher affinity than unliganded OppA. Transport screening with combinatorial peptide libraries revealed that (i) the Opp transporter is not selective with respect to amino acid side chains of the transported peptides; (ii) any peptide that can bind to OppA is transported via Opp, including very long peptides up to 35 residues long; and (iii) the binding specificity of OppA largely determines the overall transport selectivity.

    Probing Receptor-Translocator Interactions in the Oligopeptide ABC Transporter by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

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    The oligopeptide transporter Opp is a five-component ABC uptake system. The extracytoplasmic lipid-anchored substrate-binding protein (or receptor) OppA delivers peptides to an integral membrane complex OppBCDF (or translocator), where, on ATP binding and hydrolysis, translocation across the membrane takes place. OppA and OppBCDF were labeled with fluorescent probes, reconstituted into giant unilamellar vesicles, and the receptor-translocator interactions were investigated by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Lateral mobility of OppA was reduced on incorporation of OppBCDF into giant unilamellar vesicles, and decreased even further on the addition of peptide. Fluorescence cross-correlation measurements revealed that OppBCDF distinguished liganded from unliganded OppA, binding only the former. Addition of ATP or its nonhydrolyzable analog AMP-PNP resulted in release of OppA from OppBCDF. In vanadate-trapped ‚Äė‚Äėtransition state‚Äô‚Äô conditions, OppA also was not bound by OppBCDF. A model is presented in which ATP-binding to OppDF results in donation of peptide to OppBC and simultaneous release of OppA. ATP-hydrolysis would complete the peptide translocation and reset the transporter for another catalytic cycle. Implications in terms of a general transport mechanism for ABC importers and exporters are discussed.

    Combined in-gel tryptic digestion and CNBr cleavage for the generation of peptide maps of an integral membrane protein with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

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    A limitation of the in-gel approaches for the generation of peptides of membrane proteins is the size and hydrophobicity of the fragments generated. For membrane proteins like the lactose transporter (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus, tryptic digestion or CNBr cleavage yields several hydrophobic fragments larger than 3.5 kDa. As a result, the sequence coverage of the membrane domain is low when the in-gel tryptic-digested or CNBr-cleaved fragments are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The combination of tryptic digestion and subsequent CNBr cleavage on the same gel pieces containing LacS approximately doubled the coverage of the hydrophobic membrane domain compared to the individual cleavage methods, while the coverage of the soluble domain remained complete. The fragments formed are predominantly below m/z 2500, which allows accurate mass measurement.

    The structural basis for peptide selection by the transport receptor OppA

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    Oligopeptide-binding protein A (OppA) from Lactococcus lactis binds peptides of an exceptionally wide range of lengths (4‚Äď35 residues), with no apparent sequence preference. Here, we present the crystal structures of OppA in the open- and closed-liganded conformations. The structures directly explain the protein's phenomenal promiscuity. A huge cavity allows binding of very long peptides, and a lack of constraints for the position of the N and C termini of the ligand is compatible with binding of peptides with varying lengths. Unexpectedly, the peptide's amino-acid composition (but not the exact sequence) appears to have a function in selection, with a preference for proline-rich peptides containing at least one isoleucine. These properties can be related to the physiology of the organism: L. lactis is auxotrophic for branched chain amino acids and favours proline-rich caseins as a source of amino acids. We propose a new mechanism for peptide selection based on amino-acid composition rather than sequence