1,224 research outputs found

    Verbal information transfer in real-life: when mothers worry about their child starting school

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    Verbal information transfer, one of Rachman’s three pathways to fear, may be one way in which vulnerability for anxiety may be transmitted from parents to children. A community sample of mothers and their preschool-aged children (N = 65) completed observational tasks relating to the child starting school. Mothers were asked to tell their child about social aspects of school; then children completed a brief play assessment involving ambiguous, school-based social scenarios. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires on social anxiety symptoms, general anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as a questionnaire on child anxiety symptoms and indicated whether they were personally worried about their child starting school. There was a significant difference in the information given to children about school between mothers who stated they were worried and those who stated they were not, with mothers who were worried more likely to mention unresolved threat, use at least one anxiety-related word, and show clear/consistent negativity (all ps < .01). Significant associations were also found between the emotional tone of mothers’ descriptions of school and children’s own representations of school. These findings support the theory that the information mothers give to their child may be influenced by their own concerns regarding their child, and that this verbal information affects child representations

    A Place for Me? Older people and the future Northampton town centre

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    Research conducted by the University of Northampton in partnership with Age UK Northamptonshire, which asks for the views of older people and their experience of using Northampton town centre, was published on Friday 31st January 2020

    Faculty Recital: John Warren and Friends

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    KSU School of Music presents John Warren and Friends featuring Associate Professor of Clarinet, John Warren.https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/musicprograms/1653/thumbnail.jp

    Cultivating compassion through compassion circles: learning from experience in mental health care in the NHS

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    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the importance of compassion in health care and experiences of Compassion Circles (CCs) in supporting it, placing this into the national policy context of the National Health Service (NHS), whilst focusing on lessons from using the practice in mental health care. Design/methodology/approach: This conceptual paper is a discussion of the context of compassion in health care and a description of model and related concepts of CCs. This paper also discusses lessons from implementation of CCs in mental health care. Findings: CCs were developed from an initial broad concern with the place of compassion and well-being in communities and organisations, particularly in health and social care after a number of scandals about failures of care. Through experience CCs have been refined into a flexible model of supporting staff in mental health care settings. Experience to date suggests they are a valuable method of increasing compassion for self and others, improving relationships between team members and raising issues of organisational support to enable compassionate practice. Research limitations/implications: This paper is a discussion of CCs and their conceptual underpinnings and of insights and lessons from their adoption to date, and more robust evaluation is required. Practical implications: As an emergent area of practice CCs have been seen to present a powerful and practical approach to supporting individual members of staff and teams. Organisations and individuals might wish to join the community of practice that exists around CCs to consider the potential of this intervention in their workplaces and add to the growing body of learning about it. It is worth further investigation to examine the impact of CCs on current concerns with maintaining staff well-being and engagement, and, hence, on stress, absence and the sustainability of work environments over time. Social implications: CCs present a promising means of developing a culture and practice of more compassion in mental health care and other care contexts. Originality/value: CCs have become supported in national NHS guidance and more support to adopt, evaluate and learn from this model is warranted. This paper is a contribution to developing a better understanding of the CCs model, implementation lessons and early insights into impact

    Development and evaluation of a new measure of children’s play: the Children’s Play Scale (CPS)

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    Abstract: Background: There is increasing recognition of the importance of children’s play from a public health perspective, given the links between play and children’s physical and mental health. The present research aimed to develop and evaluate a new parent-report questionnaire that measures the time children spend playing across a range of places and includes a supplement to evaluate how adventurously children play. Methods: The questionnaire was developed with input from a diverse group of parents and experts in children’s play. It was designed to yield a range of metrics including time spent playing per year, time spent playing outside, time spent playing in nature and level of adventurous play. The reliability of the questionnaire was then evaluated with 245 parents (149 mothers, 96 fathers) of 154 children aged 5–11 years. All participants completed the measure at time 1. At time 2, an average of 20 days later, 184 parents (111 mothers and 73 fathers) of 99 children completed the measure again. Results: Cross-informant agreement, evaluated using Concordance Correlation Coefficients (CCCs), ranged from 0.36 to 0.51. These fall in the poor to moderate range and are largely comparable to cross-informant agreement on other measures. Test-retest reliability for mothers was good (range 0.67–0.76) for time spent playing metrics. For fathers, test-retest reliability was lower (range 0.39–0.63). For both parents the average level of adventurous play variable had relatively poor test retest reliability (mothers = 0.49, fathers = 0.42). This variable also showed a significant increase from time 1 to time 2. This instability over time may be due to the timing of the research in relation to the Covid-19 lockdown and associated shifts in risk perception. Conclusions: The measure will be of value in future research focusing on the public health benefits and correlates of children’s play as well as researchers interested in children’s outdoor play and play in nature specifically. The development of the measure in collaboration with parents and experts in children’s play is a significant strength. It will be of value for future research to further validate the measure against play diaries or activity monitors

    Risk of Psychosis Among Individuals Who Have Presented to Hospital With Self-harm:A Prospective Nationwide Register Study in Sweden

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    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Recent research showed that young people who presented to hospital with self-harm in Finland had a significantly elevated risk of later psychosis. We investigated the prospective relationship between hospital presentation for self-harm and risk of psychosis in an unprecedentedly large national Swedish cohort.STUDY DESIGN: We used inpatient and outpatient healthcare registers to identify all individuals born between 1981 and 1993 who were alive and living in Sweden on their 12th birthday and who presented to hospital one or more times with self-harm. We compared them with a matched cohort, followed up for up to 20 years, and compared the cumulative incidence of psychotic disorders. Furthermore, we examined whether the strength of the relationship between hospital presentation for self-harm and later psychosis changed over time by examining for cohort effects.STUDY RESULTS: In total, 28 908 (2.0%) individuals presented to hospital with self-harm without prior psychosis diagnosis during the follow-up. For individuals who presented to hospital with self-harm, the cumulative incidence of diagnosed psychosis was 20.7% at 20 years follow-up (hazard radio = 13.9, 95% CI 13.3-14.6, P-value &lt;5 × 10-308). There was no evidence of a dilution of the effect over time: while the incidence of hospital self-harm presentation increased, this did not result in an attenuation over time of the strength of the relationship between hospital self-harm presentation and subsequent psychosis.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who present to hospital with self-harm in their teens and 20s represent an important risk group for psychosis prediction and prevention.</p

    STAT3 and HIF1 signaling drives oncogenic cellular phenotypes in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

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    Therapeutic options are limited for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and clinical trials using drug agents have so far been unsuccessful. This lack of clinical success is likely attributed to high levels of intratumoral molecular heterogeneity and variations in signal transduction within MPNSTs. To better explore the variance of malignant signaling properties within heterogeneous MPNSTs, four MPNST cell lines (ST8814, S462, S1844.1, and S1507.2) were used. The data demonstrate that small-molecule inhibition of the MET proto-oncogene and mTOR had variable outcome when preventing wound healing, cell migration, and invasion, with the S462 cells being highly resistant to both. Of interest, targeted inhibition of the STAT3 transcription factor suppressed wound healing, cell migration, invasion, and tumor formation in all four MPNST lines, which demonstrates that unlike MET and mTOR, STAT3 functions as a common driver of tumorigenesis in NF1-MPNSTs. Of clinical importance, STAT3 knockdown was sufficient to block the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α, HIF2α, and VEGF-A in all four MPNST lines. Finally, the data demonstrate that wound healing, cell migration, invasion, and tumor formation through STAT3 are highly dependent on HIF signaling, where knockdown of HIF1α ablated these oncogenic facets of STAT3

    Genotype and cytokinin effects on soybean yield and biological nitrogen fixation across soil temperatures

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    High nitrogen (N) supply is required for high‐yielding soybean, but low soil temperatures in either early production systems or cool environments delay nodulation and limit biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Because cytokinins are key signalling hormones in mediating nodule formation and our initial controlled environment experiment indicated that seed cytokinin treatment increased early BNF and total nodule area, it was used in field trials. Cytokinin was applied (seed or foliar) to two commercial soybean genotypes (DM50I17 and DM40R16) in field trials with early (September and early November) and conventional (late November) sowing dates in Argentina. In the field, DMR50I7 achieved consistent yields across sowing dates because increased BNF compensated for limited soil N uptake in early sowing dates, also leading to 25% higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Surprisingly, soil N uptake was more cold‐sensitive than BNF with greater and prolonged N fixation in early sowing, perhaps through delayed nodulation, leading to improved N harvest index. Cytokinin seed treatment increased BNF (26%) in DM40R16 especially in early sowing dates. Although cytokinin improved cold tolerance of BNF, this was not explained by altered nodulation and did not increase yield. Here we show genetic differences in N supply in commercial soybean genotypes and the importance of BNF to maintain yield in early sown soybean

    The efficacy of interventions for behaviourally inhibited preschool-aged children: A meta-analysis

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    The current systematic review and meta-analyses examined the efficacy of psychological interventions targeting behavioural inhibition and anxiety in preschool-aged children, evaluated within randomised controlled trials. Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were systematically searched from inception to March 2021. Ten studies (N = 1475 children, aged 3 – 7 years) were included in the current review. Separate analyses were conducted for behavioural inhibition, anxiety symptoms, and anxiety diagnosis as reported by parents, teachers, and observer-ratings. Pooled outcomes ranged from post-intervention to 12-month follow-up due to the limited number of studies. Meta-analyses revealed that intervention did not reduce behavioural inhibition as assessed by independent observers (SMD = -.13, 95% CI = -.63 to.38), but did reduce behavioural inhibition as reported by parents (SMC = -.64, 95% CI = -1.00 to -.27) and teachers (SMD = -.69, 95% CI = -1.02 to -.36). Additionally, intervention appeared to reduce the risk of anxiety disorders (RR =.75, 95% CI =.62 to.90), and parent-report anxiety symptoms (SMC = -.47, 95% CI = -.83 to -.12) in preschool-aged children. Intervention may be efficacious in reducing anxiety in preschool-aged behaviourally inhibited children. It is less clear whether intervention leads to change in BI

    Deep roots and soil structure

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    In this opinion article we examine the relationship between penetrometer resistance and soil depth in the field. Assuming that root growth is inhibited at penetrometer resistances > 2.5 MPa, we conclude that in most circumstances the increases in penetrometer resistance with depth are sufficiently great to confine most deep roots to elongating in existing structural pores. We suggest that deep rooting is more likely related to the interaction between root architecture and soil structure than it is to the ability of a root to deform strong soil. Although the ability of roots to deform strong soil is an important trait, we propose it is more closely related to root exploration of surface layers than deep rooting
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