8 research outputs found

    Primary caregivers, healthcare workers, teachers and community leaders' perceptions and experiences of their involvement, practice and challenges of disclosure of HIV status to children living with HIV in Malawi: A qualitative study

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    Background: The World Health Organisation has recommended that healthcare workers, teachers and community leaders work with parents to support children living with HIV. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and experiences of primary caregivers and other care providers such as healthcare workers, teachers, and community leaders regarding their involvement, practice and challenges of HIV disclosure to children aged between 6 and 12 years living with HIV in Malawi. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 19 one-on-one interviews involving a total of 106 participants were conducted in all three administrative regions of Malawi. The interviews and focus group discussions explored perceptions and experiences regarding involvement, practice and challenges of disclosure of HIV status to children. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Primary caregivers, healthcare workers, teachers, and community leaders all reported that the disclosure of HIV status to children was not well coordinated because each of the groups of participants was working in isolation instead of working as a team. A "working together" model emerged from the data analysis where participants expressed the need for them to work as a team in order to promote safe and effective HIV status disclosure through talking about HIV, sharing responsibility and open communication. Participants reported that by working together, the team members would ensure that the prevalence of HIV disclosure to young children increases and that there would be a reduction in any negative impact of disclosure. Conclusion: Global resources are required to better support children living with HIV and their families. Healthcare workers and teachers would benefit greatly from training in working together with families living with HIV and, specifically, training in the disclosure process. Resources, in the form of books and other educational materials, would help them explain HIV and its effective management to children and families

    The legacy of racism and Indigenous Australian identity within education

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    ┬ę 2014 Taylor & Francis. It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for AustraliaÔÇÖs First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism. Additionally, and if not somewhat related to this critique, it can be suggested that the very construction of research from a Western perspective of Indigenous identity (as opposed to identities) and ways of being are deeply entwined within the undertones of epistemological racism still prevalent today. It is the purpose of this article to move beyond the overreliance of outside-based understanding Western epistemologies, and to explore not only the complex nature of both racism and identity from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives, but to also explore the role of education and research in perpetuating varying levels of racism and resistance to Indigenous identity(ies) from a contemporary insider-based standpoint. It is hoped this article will shed some light on the pervasive nature of racism directed at Indigenous Australians, and highlight the need for the continual acceptance, respect, and promotion of Indigenous voices and identities within the educational environment and beyond

    Positive Behavior Interventions: the Issue of Sustainability of Positive Effects

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    During the last decade, positive behavior interventions have resulted in improvement of school behavior and academic gains in a range of school settings worldwide. Recent studies identify sustainability of current positive behavior intervention programs as a major concern. The purpose of this article is to identify future direction for effective implementation of positive behavior interventions based on a comprehensive review of the current status of positive behavior interventions in terms of sustainability. The review will also examine implementation fidelity, as a factor that impacts upon sustainability. Literature reviewed in this study demonstrates that administrator support and professional development were the most frequently cited influential factors in previous research on sustainability of positive behavior interventions. In particular, the review highlights the significance of implementation fidelity at the classroom level for sustaining positive outcomes of positive behavior interventions over time. It is argued that in order to sustain positive effects of positive behavior intervention, future implementation efforts need to emphasize administrator support for the school team, ongoing high-quality professional development, and technical assistance. Moreover, a focus on coaching classroom-level implementation fidelity is of significant importance, as is the development and validation of evaluation tools for sustainability based on large-scale longitudinal international studies and more in-depth qualitative investigations

    A scoping review of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion programs focused on modifying chronic disease risk factors

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    First published: 14 November 2019Issue addressed: Noncommunicable chronic disease underlies much of the life expectancy gap experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Modifying contributing risk factors; tobacco smoking, nutrition, alcohol consumption, physical activity, social and emotional wellbeing (SNAPS) could help close this disease gap. This scoping review identified and describes SNAPS health promotion programs implemented for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. Methods: Databases PubMed, CINAHL, Informit (Health Collection and Indigenous Peoples Collection), Scopus, Trove and relevant websites and clearing houses were searched for eligible studies until June 2015. To meet the inclusion criteria the program had to focus on modifying one of the SNAPS risk factors and the majority of participants had to identify as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander heritage. Results: The review identified 71 health promotion programs, described in 83 publications. Programs were implemented across a range of health and community settings and included all Australian states and territories, from major cities to remote communities. The SNAPS factor addressed most commonly was nutrition. Some programs included the whole community, or had multiple key audiences, whilst others focused solely on one subgroup of the population such as chronic disease patients, pregnant women or youth. Fourteen of the programs reported no outcome assessments. Conclusions: Health promotion programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have not been adequately evaluated. The majority of programs focused on the development of individual skills and changing personal behaviours without addressing the other health promotion action areas, such as creating supportive environments or reorienting health care services. So What? This scoping review provides a summary of the health promotion programs that have been delivered in Australia for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to prevent or manage chronic disease. These programs, although many are limited in quality, should be used to inform future programs. To improve evidenceÔÇÉbased health promotion practice, health promotion initiatives need to be evaluated and the findings published publicly.Karla J. Canuto, Edoardo Aromataris, Teresa Burgess, Carol Davy, Andrea McKivett, Kate Schwartzkopff Kootsy Canuto, Catalin Tufanaru, Craig Lockwood, Alex Brow

    From Selectivity to Universalism: The Political Economy of Pro-Equality Educational Reform

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