40 research outputs found

    Crilin: CRystal calorImeter with Longitudinal InformatioN for a future Muon Collider

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    Being modern tracking systems very precise, jet performance in particle flow-like reconstruction algorithms is usually limited by the calorimeter performance. In particular, a high granularity is required in order to distinguish signal particles from background and to solve the substructures necessary for jet identification. Time of arrival measurements in the calorimeter could play an important role in HL-LHC, since a high number of pile-up collisions is expected, and the timing could be used to assign clusters to the corresponding interaction vertex. In a Muon Collider, the timing could be used to remove signals produced by beam-induced background, asynchronous with respect to the bunch crossing. The calorimeter energy resolution is also fundamental to measure the kinematic properties of jets: a finely segmented calorimeter design should be favored in order to solve the jet substructure. However, this contrasts with the requirement for high timing resolution even for signal events involving low energy deposits, such as in the case of high impulse muons. Our proposed design, the Crilin calorimeter, is a semi-homogeneous calorimeter based on Lead Fluoride (PbF2 ) Crystals readout by surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). In this paper, the development of a small prototype consisting of 2 layers of 3 × 3 crystals each is reported along with the relative results

    True muonium resonant production at e+e−e^+e^- colliders with standard crossing angle

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    True muonium (μ+μ−\mu^+\mu^-) is the heaviest and smallest bound state not involving quantum chromodynamics, after true tauonium (τ+τ−\tau^+\tau^-) and mu-tauonium (μ±τ∓\mu^\pm\tau^\mp). Unlike atoms containing τ\tau particles, the muon lifetime is long enough to allow observation of true muonium (TM) decays and transitions. One of the proposed methods to observe the spin 1 fundamental state of TM, which has the smallest lifetime among TM spin 1 states, was to build an e+e−e^+e^- collider with a large crossing angle (θ∼30∘\theta \sim 30^\circ) in order to provide TM with a large boost and detect its decay vertex in e+e−e^+ e^-. The following paper will instead show that TM excited states (n≥2n\geq2) can be observed in relatively large quantities (O\mathcal{O}(10)/month) at a feasible e+e−e^+e^- collider with standard crossing angles, after setting their center-of-mass energy to the TM mass (∼2mμ=211.4\sim2m_{\mu}=211.4 MeV)

    Crilin: A Semi-Homogeneous Calorimeter for a Future Muon Collider

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    Calorimeters, as other detectors, have to face the increasing performance demands of the new energy frontier experiments. For a future Muon Collider the main challenge is given by the Beam Induced Background that may pose limitations to the physics performance. However, it is possible to reduce the BIB impact by exploiting some of its characteristics by ensuring high granularity, excellent timing, longitudinal segmentation and good energy resolution. The proposed design, the Crilin calorimeter, is an alternative semi-homogeneous ECAL barrel for the Muon Collider based on Lead Fluoride Crystals (PbF2) with a surface-mount UV-extended Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout with an optimized design for a future Muon Collider

    Proteasome-mediated degradation of keratins 7, 8, 17 and 18 by mutant KLHL24 in a foetal keratinocyte model: Novel insight in congenital skin defects and fragility of epidermolysis bullosa simplex with cardiomyopathy

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    Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) with cardiomyopathy (EBS-KLHL24) is an EBS subtype caused by dominantly inherited, gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding for the ubiquitin-ligase KLHL24, which addresses specific proteins to proteasomal degradation. EBS-KLHL24 patients are born with extensive denuded skin areas and skin fragility. Whilst skin fragility rapidly ameliorates, atrophy and scarring develop over time, accompanied by life-threatening cardiomyopathy. To date, pathogenetic mechanisms underlying such a unique disease phenotype are not fully characterized. The basal keratin 14 (K14) has been indicated as a KLHL24 substrate in keratinocytes. However, EBS-KLHL24 pathobiology cannot be determined by the mutation-enhanced disruption of K14 alone, as K14 is similarly expressed in foetal and postnatal epidermis and its protein levels are preserved both in vivo and in vitro disease models. In this study, we focused on foetal keratins as additional KLHL24 substrates. We showed that K7, K8, K17 and K18 protein levels are markedly reduced via proteasome degradation in normal foetal keratinocytes transduced with the mutant KLHL24 protein (Delta N28-KLHL24) as compared to control cells expressing the wild-type form. In addition, heat stress led to keratin network defects and decreased resilience in Delta N28-KLHL24 cells. The KLHL24-mediated degradation of foetal keratins could contribute to congenital skin defects in EBS-KLHL24. Furthermore, we observed that primary keratinocytes from EBS-KLHL24 patients undergo accelerated clonal conversion with reduced colony forming efficiency (CFE) and early replicative senescence. Finally, our findings pointed out a reduced CFE in Delta N28-KLHL24-transduced foetal keratinocytes as compared to controls, suggesting that mutant KLHL24 contributes to patients' keratinocyte clonogenicity impairment

    Measurement of proton, deuteron, triton, and α particle emission after nuclear muon capture on Al, Si, and Ti with the AlCap experiment

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    Heavy charged particles after nuclear muon capture are an important nuclear physics background to the muon-to-electron conversion experiments Mu2e and COMET, which will search for charged lepton flavor violation at an unprecedented level of sensitivity. The AlCap experiment measured the yield and energy spectra of protons, deuterons, tritons, and alpha particles emitted after the nuclear capture of muons stopped in Al, Si, and Ti in the low energy range relevant for the muon-to-electron conversion experiments. Individual charged particle types were identified in layered silicon detector packages and their initial energy distributions were unfolded from the observed energy spectra. Detailed information on yields and energy spectra for all observed nuclei are presented in the paper.Comment: 24 pages, 19 figure

    Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter Readout Electronics: Design and Characterisation

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    The Mu2e experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory will search for the charged-lepton flavour-violating neutrinoless conversion of negative muons into electrons in the Coulomb field of an Al nucleus. The conversion electron with a monoenergetic 104.967 MeV signature will be identified by a complementary measurement carried out by a high-resolution tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter, improving by four orders of magnitude the current single-event sensitivity. The calorimeter—composed of 1348 pure CsI crystals arranged in two annular disks—has a high granularity, 10% energy resolution and 500 ps timing resolution for 100 MeV electrons. The readout, based on large-area UV-extended SiPMs, features a fully custom readout chain, from the analogue front-end electronics to the digitisation boards. The readout electronics design was validated for operation in vacuum and under magnetic fields. An extensive radiation hardness certification campaign certified the FEE design for doses up to 100 krad and 1012 n1MeVeq/cm2 and for single-event effects. A final vertical slice test on the final readout chain was carried out with cosmic rays on a large-scale calorimeter prototype

    The Mu2e Crystal Calorimeter: An Overview

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    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the standard model-forbidden, charged lepton flavour-violating conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminium nucleus. The distinctive signal signature is represented by a mono-energetic electron with an energy near the muon's rest mass. The experiment aims to improve the current single-event sensitivity by four orders of magnitude by means of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam and a high-precision tracking system. The electromagnetic calorimeter complements the tracker by providing high rejection power in muon to electron identification and a seed for track reconstruction while working in vacuum in presence of a 1 T axial magnetic field and in a harsh radiation environment. For 100 MeV electrons, the calorimeter should achieve: (a) a time resolution better than 0.5 ns, (b) an energy resolution <10%, and (c) a position resolution of 1 cm. The calorimeter design consists of two disks, each loaded with 674 undoped CsI crystals read out by two large-area arrays of UV-extended SiPMs and custom analogue and digital electronics. We describe here the status of construction for all calorimeter components and the performance measurements conducted on the large-sized prototype with electron beams and minimum ionizing particles at a cosmic ray test stand. A discussion of the calorimeter's engineering aspects and the on-going assembly is also reported

    Towards a muon collider

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    A muon collider would enable the big jump ahead in energy reach that is needed for a fruitful exploration of fundamental interactions. The challenges of producing muon collisions at high luminosity and 10 TeV centre of mass energy are being investigated by the recently-formed International Muon Collider Collaboration. This Review summarises the status and the recent advances on muon colliders design, physics and detector studies. The aim is to provide a global perspective of the field and to outline directions for future work