58 research outputs found

    Identification and characterization of bovine regulator of telomere length elongation helicase gene (RTEL): molecular cloning, expression distribution, splice variants and DNA methylation profile

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    BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of telomere length heterogeneity among mammalian species is still not well understood. Recently, a gene named regulator of telomere length elongation helicase (RTEL) was identified and predicted to be an essential participant in species-specific telomere length regulation in two murine species. To obtain broader insights into its structure and biological functions and to ascertain whether RTEL is also a candidate gene in the regulation of telomere length diversity in other mammalian species, data from other mammals may be helpful. RESULTS: Here we report the cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal location, alternative splicing pattern, expression distribution and DNA methylation profile of the bovine homolog of RTEL. The longest transcript of bovine RTEL is 4440 nt, encompassing 24.8 kb of genomic sequence that was mapped to chromosome 13q2.2. It encodes a conserved helicase-like protein containing seven characterized helicase motifs in the first 750 aa and a PIP box in the C-terminus. Four splice variants were identified within the transcripts in both the coding and 5'-untranslated regions; Western blot revealed that the most abundant splice variant SV-1 was translated to a truncated isoform of RTEL. The different 5'UTRs imply alternative transcription start sites in the promoter; Bovine RTEL was transcribed at the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were highest in adult testis, liver and ovary. DNA methylation analysis of tissues that differed significantly in expression level indicated that relatively low DNA methylation is associated with higher expression. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have identified and characterized a bovine RTEL homolog and obtained basic information about it, including gene structure, expression distribution, splice variants and profile of DNA methylation around two putative transcription start sites. These data may be helpful for further comparative and functional analysis of RTEL in mammals

    Aberrant epigenetic changes and gene expression in cloned cattle dying around birth

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Aberrant reprogramming of donor somatic cell nuclei may result in many severe problems in animal cloning. To assess the extent of abnormal epigenetic modifications and gene expression in clones, we simultaneously examined DNA methylation, histone H4 acetylation and expression of six genes (<it>╬▓-actin</it>, <it>VEGF</it>, <it>oct4</it>, <it>TERT</it>, <it>H19 </it>and <it>Igf2</it>) and a repetitive sequence (<it>art2</it>) in five organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) from two cloned cattle groups that had died at different stages. In the ED group (early death, n = 3), the cloned cattle died in the perinatal period. The cattle in the LD group (late death, n = 3) died after the perinatal period. Normally reproduced cattle served as a control group (n = 3).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Aberrant DNA methylation, histone H4 acetylation and gene expression were observed in both cloned groups. The ED group showed relatively fewer severe DNA methylation abnormalities (p < 0.05) but more abnormal histone H4 acetylations (p < 0.05) and more abnormal expression (p < 0.05) of the selected genes compared to the LD group. However, our data also suggest no widespread gene expression abnormalities in the organs of the dead clones.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Deaths of clones may be ascribed to abnormal expression of a very limited number of genes.</p

    Similarity Analysis of Small- and Medium-Sized Watersheds Based on Clustering Ensemble Model

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    Similarity analysis of small- and medium-sized watersheds mainly depends on manual work, and there is no complete automated analysis method. In order to solve this problem, we propose a similarity analysis method based on clustering ensemble model. First, the iterative clustering ensemble construction algorithm with weighted random sampling (WRS-CCE) is proposed to get great clustering collectives. Then, we combine spectral clustering with the fuzzy C-means method to design a consensus function for small- and medium-sized watershed data sets. Finally, the similarity analysis of small- and medium-sized watersheds is carried out according to the clustering results. Experiments show that the proposed clustering ensemble model can effectively find more potential similar watersheds and can output the similarity of these watersheds

    Research on the Data-Driven Quality Control Method of Hydrological Time Series Data

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    Ensuring the quality of hydrological data has become a key issue in the field of hydrology. Based on the characteristics of hydrological data, this paper proposes a data-driven quality control method for hydrological data. For continuous hydrological time series data, two combined forecasting models and one statistical control model are constructed from horizontal, vertical, and statistical perspectives and the three models provide three confidence intervals. Set the suspicious level based on the number of confidence intervals for data violations, control the data, and provide suggested values for suspicious and missing data. For the discrete hydrological data with large time-space difference, the similar weight topological map between the neighboring stations is established centering on the hydrological station under the test and it is adjusted continuously with the seasonal changes. Lastly, a spatial interpolation model is established to detect the data. The experimental results show that the quality control method proposed in this paper can effectively detect and control the data, find suspicious and erroneous data, and provide suggested values

    MiR-146a regulates SOD2 expression in H2O2 stimulated PC12 cells.

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    SOD2 (superoxide dismutase 2) is one of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes that protect against reactive oxygen species. While explorations of SOD2 expression regulation are mainly focused on transcriptional and post-translational activation, there are few reports about the post-transcriptional regulation of SOD2. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21nt-25nt (nucleotide) small noncoding RNAs that have emerged as indispensable regulators of gene expression. Here we show that miR-146a, a widely expressed miRNA, is up-regulated by H2O2-induced stress. By sequence analysis we found a binding site for miR-146a in the sod2 mRNA 3'UTR, and a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-146a can interact with this sod2 regulatory region. Our results further show that miR-146a could down-regulate the SOD2 protein expression, and antisense-miR-146a could reverse the decrease of both the SOD2 level and cell viability in H2O2 treated PC12 cells. In conclusion, here we have identified a novel function of miR-146a in the post-transcriptional regulation of SOD2 expression
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