134 research outputs found

    Turbulent mixing

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    The ability of turbulent flows to effectively mix entrained fluids to a molecular scale is a vital part of the dynamics of such flows, with wide-ranging consequences in nature and engineering. It is a considerable experimental, theoretical, modeling, and computational challenge to capture and represent turbulent mixing which, for high Reynolds number (Re) flows, occurs across a spectrum of scales of considerable span. This consideration alone places high-Re mixing phenomena beyond the reach of direct simulation, especially in high Schmidt number fluids, such as water, in which species diffusion scales are one and a half orders of magnitude smaller than the smallest flow scales. The discussion below attempts to provide an overview of turbulent mixing; the attendant experimental, theoretical, and computational challenges; and suggests possible future directions for progress in this important field

    Cover illustration: Non-premixed hydrocarbon flame

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    This year’s cover illustration, reproduced here as figure 1, depicts an image formed by a short-time (1/1000 s) exposure of a non-premixed hydrocarbon flame. The flow is driven by the buoyancy forces generated by the density difference from the combustion heat release and resulting temperature rise. The Reynolds number for this buoyancy-induced, turbulent flow is relatively low, estimated at a few thousand

    Reynolds number dependence of scalar fluctuations in a high Schmidt number turbulent jet

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    The scalar rms fluctuations in a turbulent jet were investigated experimentally, using high-resolution, laser-induced fluorescence techniques. The experiments were conducted in a high Schmidt number fluid (water), on the jet centerline, over a jet Reynolds number range of 30003000 or 6500

    Stochastic geometric properties of scalar interfaces in turbulent jets

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    Experiments were conducted in which the behavior of scalar interfaces in turbulent jets was examined, using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques. The experiments were carried out in a high Schmidt number fluid (water), on the jet centerline, over a jet Reynolds number range of 1000<=Re<=24 000. Both two-dimensional scalar data, c(r,t) at fixed x/d, and one-dimensional scalar data, c(t) at fixed x/d and r/x, were analyzed using standard one- and two-dimensional fractal box-counting algorithms. Careful treatment was given to the handling of noise. Both long and short records as well as off-centerline measurements were also investigated. The important effect of threshold upon the results is discussed. No evidence was found of a constant (power-law) fractal dimension over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. On the other hand, the results are consistent with the computed behavior of a simple stochastic model of interface geometry

    Measurements of scalar power spectra in high Schmidt number turbulent jets

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    We report on an experimental investigation of temporal, scalar power spectra of round, high Schmidt number (Sc ≃ 1.9 × 10^3), momentum-dominated turbulent jets, for jet Reynolds numbers in the range of 1.25 × 10^4 ≤ Re ≤ 7.2 × 10^4. At intermediate scales, we find a spectrum with a slope (logarithmic derivative) that increases in absolute value with Reynolds number, but remains less than 5/3 at the highest Reynolds number in our experiments. At the smallest scales, our spectra exhibit no k^(−1) power-law behaviour, but, rather, seem to be approximated by a log-normal function, over a range of scales exceeding a factor of 40, in some cases

    Some consequences of the boundedness of scalar fluctuations

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    Values of the scalar field c(x,t), if initially bounded, will always be bounded by the limits set by the initial conditions. This observation permits the maximum variance ∼(c′^2) to be computed as a function of the mean value c. It is argued that this maximum should be expected in the limit of infinite Schmidt numbers (zero scalar species diffusivity). This suggests that c′/c on the axis of turbulent jets, for example, may not tend to a constant, i.e., independent of x/d, in the limit of very large Schmidt numbers. It also underscores a difficulty with the k^(−1) scalar spectrum proposed by Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 5, 113 (1959)]

    Shape Complexity in Turbulence

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    The shape complexity of irregular surfaces is quantified by a dimensionless area-volume measure. A joint distribution of shape complexity and size is found for level-set islands and lakes in two-dimensional slices of the scalar field of liquid-phase turbulent jets, with complexity values increasing with size. A well-defined power law, over 3 decades in size (6 decades in area), is found for the shape complexity distribution. Such properties are important in various phenomena that rely on large area-volume ratios of surfaces or interfaces, such as turbulent mixing and combustion

    Scale distributions and fractal dimensions in turbulence

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    A new geometric framework connecting scale distributions to coverage statistics is employed to analyze level sets arising in turbulence as well as in other phenomena. A 1D formalism is described and applied to Poisson, lognormal, and power-law statistics. A d-dimensional generalization is also presented. Level sets of 2D spatial measurements of jet-fluid concentration in turbulent jets are analyzed to compute scale distributions and fractal dimensions. Lognormal statistics are used to model the level sets at inner scales. The results are in accord with data from other turbulent flows

    Transition stages of Rayleigh–Taylor instability between miscible fluids

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    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are presented of three-dimensional, Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) between two incompressible, miscible fluids, with a 3:1 density ratio. Periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the horizontal directions of a rectangular domain, with no-slip top and bottom walls. Solutions are obtained for the Navier–Stokes equations, augmented by a species transport-diffusion equation, with various initial perturbations. The DNS achieved outer-scale Reynolds numbers, based on mixing-zone height and its rate of growth, in excess of 3000. Initial growth is diffusive and independent of the initial perturbations. The onset of nonlinear growth is not predicted by available linear-stability theory. Following the diffusive-growth stage, growth rates are found to depend on the initial perturbations, up to the end of the simulations. Mixing is found to be even more sensitive to initial conditions than growth rates. Taylor microscales and Reynolds numbers are anisotropic throughout the simulations. Improved collapse of many statistics is achieved if the height of the mixing zone, rather than time, is used as the scaling or progress variable. Mixing has dynamical consequences for this flow, since it is driven by the action of the imposed acceleration field on local density differences
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