1,813 research outputs found

    Modelling, analysis and comparison of heatsink designs with improved natural convection

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    The paper presents FEM based study of various heatsink designs. The main aim of the study is to determine and evaluate solutions with improved heat dissipation by utilization of natural convection. Seventeen different cases both classical and proposed by the authors are studied, where each case is examined under three different heat source (in the case with the proposed study a transistor) powers. Results for temperature of the power source and velocity magnitudes in the studied volume are presented and comparted. Experimental verification of the modeling is presented for selected cases

    EMPATHY IN HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS DURING THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC

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    Background: Empathy is important for successful interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the cognitive component (Perspective taking) and affective components (Empathic concern and Personal distress) of empathy in health professionals were related to the degree of perceived threat of coronavirus, difficulties in doing work, difficulties in getting along with people, the health condition (current or past coronavirus disease), as well as with some socio-demographic characteristics. Fantasy as the cognitive component of empathy was not the focus of the present study as more irrelevant to clinical practice. Subjects and methods: A study of 296 health care workers through the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and a survey on perceived coronavirus threat, difficulties in work and getting along with people found that perceiving coronavirus as a stronger threat reduced both the cognitive component of empathy Perspective taking and the affective component of empathy Personal distress. Results: As the affective components of empathy Empathic concern and Personal distress increased, the reported work difficulties were reduced. As the cognitive component of empathy Perspective taking and the affective component of empathy Personal distress increased, the reported difficulties in having a good relationship with other people were reduced. Some socio-demographic differences in the components of empathy in health workers were also established. Conclusion: These findings revealed the importance of Personal Distress (experienced anxiety, worry, discomfort, and apprehension when observing another person\u27s negative experiences), as well as the joint manifestation of several aspects of empathy for successful work and maintaining good relationships in health care. Emotionality is a normal part of human interactions, so manifestations of cognitive empathy should not be only considered as appropriate, and emotional empathy should not be ruled out as unnecessary in clinical practice during the coronavirus pandemic

    The Shape of Learning: Anisotropy and Intrinsic Dimensions in Transformer-Based Models

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    In this study, we present an investigation into the anisotropy dynamics and intrinsic dimension of embeddings in transformer architectures, focusing on the dichotomy between encoders and decoders. Our findings reveal that the anisotropy profile in transformer decoders exhibits a distinct bell-shaped curve, with the highest anisotropy concentrations in the middle layers. This pattern diverges from the more uniformly distributed anisotropy observed in encoders. In addition, we found that the intrinsic dimension of embeddings increases in the initial phases of training, indicating an expansion into higher-dimensional space. Which is then followed by a compression phase towards the end of training with dimensionality decrease, suggesting a refinement into more compact representations. Our results provide fresh insights to the understanding of encoders and decoders embedding properties.Comment: Submitted to EACL-202

    Modelling, analysis and comparison of heat sink designs with improved natural convection

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    The paper presents FEM based study of various heatsink designs. The main aim of the study is to determine and evaluate solutions with improved heat dissipation by utilization of natural convection. Seventeen different cases both classical and proposed by the authors are studied, where each case is examined under three different heat source (in the case with the proposed study a transistor) powers. Results for temperature of the power source and velocity magnitudes in the studied volume are presented and comparted. Experimental verification of the modeling is presented for selected cases

    Many Heads but One Brain: Fusion Brain -- a Competition and a Single Multimodal Multitask Architecture

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    Supporting the current trend in the AI community, we present the AI Journey 2021 Challenge called Fusion Brain, the first competition which is targeted to make the universal architecture which could process different modalities (in this case, images, texts, and code) and solve multiple tasks for vision and language. The Fusion Brain Challenge combines the following specific tasks: Code2code Translation, Handwritten Text recognition, Zero-shot Object Detection, and Visual Question Answering. We have created datasets for each task to test the participants' submissions on it. Moreover, we have collected and made publicly available a new handwritten dataset in both English and Russian, which consists of 94,128 pairs of images and texts. We also propose a multimodal and multitask architecture - a baseline solution, in the center of which is a frozen foundation model and which has been trained in Fusion mode along with Single-task mode. The proposed Fusion approach proves to be competitive and more energy-efficient compared to the task-specific one

    Nutrigenomics: DNA-based individualized nutrition

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    In the past decade, nutrition research has undergone an important shift from epidemiology and physiology to molecular biology, adipobiology and genetics, thus launching the science of nutrigenomics. To at molecular level study effects of nutrition on health and disease. The completion of several large genome projects has markedly altered the research agenda by drawing attention to the importance of genes in human nutrition. There has been a growing recognition that micronutrients and macronutrients can be potent dietary signals that influencethemetabolic pathways of cells and have an important role in the control of energy, vascular and neuronal homeostasis. Accordingly, nutrition researchers have increasingly started to recognize that gene-environment interactions can be implicated in the pathogenesis of lifestyle-related diseases, particularly cardiometabolic diseases, fatty liver diseases, cancers, and Alzheimer's disease. An adiponutrigenomic insight into life expectancy is also outlined. Overall, the present Dance Round focuses on a mater of nationwide importance for Bulgaria, a country at the epicenter of today's global healthquake, the obesity and related diseases.Biomedical Reviews 2006; 17: 117-122

    Ultrasound imaging, biochemical blood analyses, and weight investigations of dissectible fat depots in New Zealand white rabbits

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    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate changes in real-time ultrasound imaging traits and weight of dissectible fat depots (inguinal, interscapular, and perirenal) in rabbits with different body weights and to monitor the changes in blood glucose and constituents of lipid profiles. In this study, 18 clinically healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were used. The rabbits were fed with standard diet and were divided into 3 groups according to their body weight: group 1 at 1.06 +/- 0.03 kg, group 2 at 2.1 +/- 0.05 kg, and group 3 at 3.06 +/- 0.03 kg. Examined by ultrasonography, the inguinal and interscapular fat depots appeared as bands with weak to moderate echogenicity, whereas perirenal fat was moderate to hyperechoic. The thickness of subcutaneous fat depots measured by ultrasound increased along with body weight and differences between the groups were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The differences in perirenal fat thickness between rabbits from group 1 and group 2 were not found to be statistically significant. Perirenal fat thickness in the rabbits from group 3 was higher (P < 0.001) than that of the other groups. Perirenal fat weight in group 3 correlated positively (r = 0.82; P < 0.05) to body weight. Blood biochemical analysis showed that blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were in the reference range for all groups regardless of the fact that TG and HDL-C in groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher than those in rabbits from group 1. The in vivo ultrasound screening of adipose tissue, together with blood lipid profile, is an indicator of good health and proper energy balance in rabbits bred for meat or as companion animals.Ministry of Education and Science of Bulgaria - 08/09Trakya Üniversites

    Mapping and assessment of urban ecosystem condition and services using integrated index of spatial structure

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    Urban ecosystems are the areas where built infrastructure covers a large proportion of the land surface but the main source of ecosystem services provision is the green infrastructure. This provision is very much dependent on the particular combination of green spaces such as parks or vegetation belts and paved areas such as buildings and streets. The spatial arrangement of these elements is an important parameter which could be used for the assessment of the ecosystem condition in the urban areas. An integrated index of spatial structure is proposed which incorporates built types and land cover from the Local Climate Zones (LCZ) concept with urban ecosystems' classes developed on the basis of MAES typology. An algorithm has been developed for index generation using an urban ecosystems' database and remote sensing data. The index is used to define vegetation cover in urban ecosystems and assess their condition as a part of the assessment framework. It is also applied in the assessment of several ecosystem services through quantification of ecosystem services' indicators or as an indicator in a complex assessment. The results show that, although most urban ecosystems in Bulgaria are assessed as moderate and good condition, very few of them have very good condition and about 3.5% have very bad condition. The highest scores are defined for urban green areas while the lowest are for transport networks. The use of an integrated index in urban ecosystem services' assessment is represented by examples for global and local climate regulation. The results are used to develop maps of ecosystem services supply capacity for selected cities. The overall analysis indicates that the urban ecosystems in Bulgaria have a moderate to good capacity for local climate regulation and moderate to low capacity for global climate regulation. The integrated index of spatial structure provides an appropriate basis for characterisation and assessment of the urban ecosystems condition and ecosystem services following the requirements of the EU Biodiversity Strategy and the MAES process. The proposed approach enables the internal heterogeneity of the urban ecosystems at national level to be defined, this being one of the main challenges in studying urban ecological systems
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