5,423 research outputs found

    An algorithm for calculating the Lorentz angle in silicon detectors

    Full text link
    Future experiments will use silicon sensors in the harsh radiation environment of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and high magnetic fields. The drift direction of the charge carriers is affected by the Lorentz force due to the high magnetic field. Also the resulting radiation damage changes the properties of the drift. In this paper measurements of the Lorentz angle of electrons and holes before and after irradiation are reviewed and compared with a simple algorithm to compute the Lorentz angle.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures, final version accepted by NIMA. Mainly clarifications included and slightly shortene

    Geant4 Simulation of a filtered X-ray Source for Radiation Damage Studies

    Full text link
    Geant4 low energy extensions have been used to simulate the X-ray spectra of industrial X-ray tubes with filters for removing the uncertain low energy part of the spectrum in a controlled way. The results are compared with precisely measured X-ray spectra using a silicon drift detector. Furthermore, this paper shows how the different dose rates in silicon and silicon dioxide layers of an electronic device can be deduced from the simulations

    Lorentz angle measurements in irradiated silicon detectors between 77 K and 300 K

    Get PDF
    Future experiments are using silicon detectors in a high radiation environment and in high magnetic fields. The radiation tolerance of silicon improves by cooling it to temperatures below 180 K. At low temperatures the mobility increases, which leads to larger deflections of the charge carriers by the Lorentz force. A good knowledge of the Lorentz angle is needed for design and operation of silicon detectors. We present measurements of the Lorentz angle between 77 K and 300 K before and after irradiation with a primary beam of 21 MeV protons.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, submitted to ICHEP2000, Osaka, Japa

    Signal and noise of Diamond Pixel Detectors at High Radiation Fluences

    Full text link
    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 1015^{15} neq_{eq} cm−2^{-2}, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the change of the mean free path λe/h\lambda_{e/h} of the charge carriers is determined as a function of irradiation fluence. We make use of the FE-I4 pixel chip developed for ATLAS upgrades to realistically estimate the expected noise figures: the expected leakage current at a given fluence is taken from calibrated calculations and the pixel capacitance is measured using a purposely developed chip (PixCap). We compare the resulting S/N figures with those for planar silicon pixel detectors using published charge loss measurements and the same extrapolation methods as for diamond. It is shown that the expected S/N of a diamond pixel detector with pixel pitches typical for LHC, exceeds that of planar silicon pixels at fluences beyond 1015^{15} particles cm−2^{-2}, the exact value only depending on the maximum operation voltage assumed for irradiated silicon pixel detectors

    Beam test results of silicon sensor module prototypes for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker

    Get PDF
    The start of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) in 2027 requires upgrades to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment. In the scope of the upgrade program the complete silicon tracking detector will be replaced. The new CMS Tracker will be equipped with silicon pixel detectors in the inner layers closest to the interaction point and silicon strip detectors in the outer layers. The new CMS Outer Tracker will consist of two different kinds of detector modules called PS and 2S modules. Each module will be made of two parallel silicon sensors (a macro-pixel sensor and a strip sensor for the PS modules and two strip sensors for the 2S modules). Combining the hit information of both sensor layers it is possible to estimate the transverse momentum of particles in the magnetic field of 3.8 T at the full bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz directly on the module. This information will be used as an input for the first trigger stage of CMS. It is necessary to validate the Outer Tracker module functionality before installing the modules in the CMS experiment. Besides laboratory-based tests several 2S module prototypes have been studied at test beam facilities at CERN, DESY and FNAL. This article concentrates on the beam tests at DESY during which the functionality of the module concept was investigated using the full final readout chain for the first time. Additionally the performance of a 2S module assembled with irradiated sensors was studied. By choosing an irradiation fluence expected for 2S modules at the end of HL-LHC operation, it was possible to investigate the particle detection efficiency and study the trigger capabilities of the module at the beginning and end of runtime of the CMS experiment.The start of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) in 2027 requires upgrades to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. In the scope of the upgrade program the complete silicon tracking detector will be replaced. The new CMS Tracker will be equipped with silicon pixel detectors in the inner layers closest to the interaction point and silicon strip detectors in the outer layers. The new CMS Outer Tracker will consist of two different kinds of detector modules called PS and 2S modules. Each module will be made of two parallel silicon sensors (a macro-pixel sensor and a strip sensor for the PS modules and two strip sensors for the 2S modules). Combining the hit information of both sensor layers, it is possible to estimate the transverse momentum of particles in the magnetic field of 3.8 T at the full bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz directly on the module. This information will be used as an input for the first trigger stage of CMS. It is necessary to validate the Outer Tracker module functionality before installing the modules in the CMS experiment. Besides laboratory-based tests several 2S module prototypes have been studied at test beam facilities at CERN, DESY and FNAL. This article concentrates on the beam tests at DESY during which the functionality of the module concept was investigated using the full final readout chain for the first time. Additionally the performance of a 2S module assembled with irradiated sensors was studied. By choosing an irradiation fluence expected for 2S modules at the end of HL-LHC operation, it was possible to investigate the particle detection efficiency and study the trigger capabilities of the module at the beginning and end of the runtime of the CMS experiment

    Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC

    Full text link
    While the tracking detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments have shown excellent performance in Run 1 of LHC data taking, and are expected to continue to do so during LHC operation at design luminosity, both experiments will have to exchange their tracking systems when the LHC is upgraded to the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) around the year 2024. The new tracking systems need to operate in an environment in which both the hit densities and the radiation damage will be about an order of magnitude higher than today. In addition, the new trackers need to contribute to the first level trigger in order to maintain a high data-taking efficiency for the interesting processes. Novel detector technologies have to be developed to meet these very challenging goals. The German groups active in the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS tracking systems have formed a collaborative "Project on Enabling Technologies for Silicon Microstrip Tracking Detectors at the HL-LHC" (PETTL), which was supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Physics at the Terascale" during the years 2013 and 2014. The aim of the project was to share experience and to work together on key areas of mutual interest during the R&D phase of these upgrades. The project concentrated on five areas, namely exchange of experience, radiation hardness of silicon sensors, low mass system design, automated precision assembly procedures, and irradiations. This report summarizes the main achievements

    Investigation of nitrogen enriched silicon for particle detectors

    Get PDF
    This article explores the viability of nitrogen enriched silicon for particle physics application. For that purpose silicon diodes and strip sensors were produced using high resistivity float zone silicon, diffusion oxygenated float zone silicon, nitrogen enriched float zone silicon and magnetic Czochralski silicon. The article features comparative studies using secondary ion mass spectrometry, electrical characterization, edge transient current technique, source and thermally stimulated current spectroscopy measurements on sensors that were irradiated up to a fluence of 1015 neq/cm2. Irradiations were performed with 23 MeV protons at the facilities in Karlsruhe (KIT), with 24 GeV/c protons at CERN (PS-IRRAD) and neutrons at the research reactor in Ljubljana. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements give evidence for nitrogen loss after processing, which makes gaining from nitrogen enrichment difficult

    Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- and B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^- decays

    Get PDF
    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- and B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^-, sensitive to the CKM phase gamma, using data from 7 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)K^- suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K) = [22.0 \pm 8.6(stat)\pm 2.6(syst)]\times 10^-3, R^+(K) = [42.6\pm 13.7(stat)\pm 2.8(syst)]\times 10^-3, R^-(K)= [3.8\pm 10.3(stat)\pm 2.7(syst]\times 10^-3, as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K) = -0.82\pm 0.44(stat)\pm 0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B^- -> D(-> K^+ pi^-)pi^- decay are also reported.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figure, accepted by Phys.Rev.D Rapid Communications for Publicatio
    • 

    corecore