251 research outputs found

    The chronic and evolving neurological consequences of traumatic brain injury.

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have lifelong and dynamic effects on health and wellbeing. Research on the long-term consequences emphasises that, for many patients, TBI should be conceptualised as a chronic health condition. Evidence suggests that functional outcomes after TBI can show improvement or deterioration up to two decades after injury, and rates of all-cause mortality remain elevated for many years. Furthermore, TBI represents a risk factor for a variety of neurological illnesses, including epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. With respect to neurodegeneration after TBI, post-mortem studies on the long-term neuropathology after injury have identified complex persisting and evolving abnormalities best described as polypathology, which includes chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Despite growing awareness of the lifelong consequences of TBI, substantial gaps in research exist. Improvements are therefore needed in understanding chronic pathologies and their implications for survivors of TBI, which could inform long-term health management in this sizeable patient population

    Duration of Posttraumatic Amnesia Predicts Neuropsychological and Global Outcome in Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

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    OBJECTIVES: Examine the effects of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) duration on neuropsychological and global recovery from 1 to 6 months after complicated mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 330 persons with cmTBI defined as Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 to 15 in emergency department, with well-defined abnormalities on neuroimaging. METHODS: Enrollment within 24 hours of injury with follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months. MEASURES: Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, California Verbal Learning Test II, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Duration of PTA was retrospectively measured with structured interview at 30 days postinjury. RESULTS: Despite all having a Glasgow Coma Scale Score of 13 to 15, a quarter of the sample had a PTA duration of greater than 7 days; half had PTA duration of 1 of 7 days. Both cognitive performance and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale outcomes were strongly associated with time since injury and PTA duration, with those with PTA duration of greater than 1 week showing residual moderate disability at 6-month assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reinforce importance of careful measurement of duration of PTA to refine outcome prediction and allocation of resources to those with cmTBI. Future research would benefit from standardization in computed tomographic criteria and use of severity indices beyond Glasgow Coma Scale to characterize cmTBI

    APOE ɛ4 is associated with postictal confusion in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy

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    This study examined the relationship between the APOE ɛ4 allele and postictal confusion in patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Patients with at least one ɛ4 allele (n = 22) were three times more likely to exhibit postictal confusion (68%) than the 63 patients without ɛ4 (43%). These preliminary results demonstrate that APOE ɛ4 is associated with an increased risk of postictal confusion in patients with medically intractable TLE, suggesting possible dysfunction in neuronal recovery mechanisms

    Phase 2 Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH) During Rehabilitation From Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, but there are currently no therapies with proven efficacy for optimizing regeneration of repair during rehabilitation. Using standard stimulation tests, as many as 40–50% of survivors of severe TBI have deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones. Of these, the somatotropic axis is the most commonly affected, with Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency affecting ~20% of persons with severe TBI. Treatment with recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) is generally effective in reversing the effects of acquired GH deficiency, but there is no evidence documenting functional or neurocognitive improvement after GH replacement in TBI patients. As a consequence, screening for GH deficiency and GH replacement when deficiency is found is not routinely performed as part of the rehabilitation of TBI survivors. Given that most of the recovery after TBI occurs within the first 6–12 months after injury and IGF-1 and GH are part of a coordinated restorative neurotrophic system, we hypothesized that patients will optimally benefit from GH therapy during the window of maximal neuroregenerative activity. We performed a Phase IIa, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial of recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH), starting at discharge from an inpatient rehabilitation unit, with follow up at 6 and 12 months. Our primary hypothesis was that treatment with rhGH in the subacute period would result in improved functional outcomes 6 months after injury. Our secondary hypothesis proposed that treatment with rhGH would increase IGF-1 levels and be well tolerated. Sixty-three subjects were randomized, and 40 completed the trial. At baseline, there was no correlation between IGF-1 levels and peak GH levels after L-arginine stimulation. IGF-1 levels increased after rhGH treatment, but it took longer than 1 month for levels to be higher than for placebo-treated patients. rhGH therapy was well-tolerated. The rhGH group was no different from placebo in the Disability Rating Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, or neuropsychological function. However, a trend toward greater improvement from baseline in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was noted in the rhGH treated group. Future studies should include longer treatment periods, faster titration of rhGH, and larger sample sizes

    Common Data Elements for Traumatic Brain Injury: Recommendations From the Biospecimens and Biomarkers Working Group

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    Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and biotechnology have provided unprecedented opportunities for translational research and personalized medicine. Human biospecimens and biofluids represent an important resource from which molecular data can be generated to detect and classify injury and to identify molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets. To date, there has been considerable variability in biospecimen and biofluid collection, storage, and processing in traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies. To realize the full potential of this important resource, standardization and adoption of best practice guidelines are required to insure the quality and consistency of these specimens. The aim of the Biospecimens and Biomarkers Working Group was to provide recommendations for core data elements for TBI research and develop best practice guidelines to standardize the quality and accessibility of these specimens. Consensus recommendations were developed through interactions with focus groups and input from stakeholders participating in the interagency workshop on Standardization of Data Collection in TBI and Psychological Health held in Washington, DC, in March 2009. With the adoption of these standards and best practices, future investigators will be able to obtain data across multiple studies with reduced costs and effort and accelerate the progress of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic research in TBI

    Assessing the Severity of Traumatic Brain Injury-Time for a Change?

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been described to be man's most complex disease, in man's most complex organ. Despite this vast complexity, variability, and individuality, we still classify the severity of TBI based on non-specific, often unreliable, and pathophysiologically poorly understood measures. Current classifications are primarily based on clinical evaluations, which are non-specific and poorly predictive of long-term disability. Brain imaging results have also been used, yet there are multiple ways of doing brain imaging, at different timepoints in this very dynamic injury. Severity itself is a vague concept. All prediction models based on combining variables that can be assessed during the acute phase have reached only modest predictive values for later outcome. Yet, these early labels of severity often determine how the patient is treated by the healthcare system at large. This opinion paper examines the problems and provides caveats regarding the use of current severity labels and the many practical and scientific issues that arise from doing so. The objective of this paper is to show the causes and consequences of current practice and propose a new approach based on risk classification. A new approach based on multimodal quantifiable data (including imaging and biomarkers) and risk-labels would be of benefit both for the patients and for TBI clinical research and should be a priority for international efforts in the field

    Cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease and correlation with tissue structural integrity

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    A vascular component is increasingly recognized as important in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We measured cerebral blood volume (CBV) in patients with probable AD or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and in elderly non-demented subjects using a recently developed Vascular-Space-Occupancy (VASO) MRI technique. While both gray and white matters were examined, significant CBV deficit regions were primarily located in white matter, specifically in frontal and parietal lobes, in which CBV was reduced by 20% in the AD/MCI group. The regions with CBV deficit also showed reduced tissue structural integrity as indicated by increased apparent diffusion coefficients, whereas in regions without CBV deficits no such correlation was found. Subjects with lower CBV tended to have more white matter lesions in FLAIR MRI images and showed slower psychomotor speed. These data suggest that the vascular contribution in AD is primarily localized to frontal/parietal white matter and is associated with brain tissue integrity

    Genome-wide association of familial late-onset alzheimer's disease replicates BIN1 and CLU and nominates CUGBP2 in interaction with APOE

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    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. The National Institute of Aging-Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease Family Study and the National Cell Repository for Alzheimer's Disease conducted a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiplex LOAD families (3,839 affected and unaffected individuals from 992 families plus additional unrelated neurologically evaluated normal subjects) using the 610 IlluminaQuad panel. This cohort represents the largest family-based GWAS of LOAD to date, with analyses limited here to the European-American subjects. SNPs near APOE gave highly significant results (e.g., rs2075650, p = 3.2×10-81), but no other genome-wide significant evidence for association was obtained in the full sample. Analyses that stratified on APOE genotypes identified SNPs on chromosome 10p14 in CUGBP2 with genome-wide significant evidence for association within APOE ε4 homozygotes (e.g., rs201119, p = 1.5×10-8). Association in this gene was replicated in an independent sample consisting of three cohorts. There was evidence of association for recently-reported LOAD risk loci, including BIN1 (rs7561528, p = 0.009 with, and p = 0.03 without, APOE adjustment) and CLU (rs11136000, p = 0.023 with, and p = 0.008 without, APOE adjustment), with weaker support for CR1. However, our results provide strong evidence that association with PICALM (rs3851179, p = 0.69 with, and p = 0.039 without, APOE adjustment) and EXOC3L2 is affected by correlation with APOE, and thus may represent spurious association. Our results indicate that genetic structure coupled with ascertainment bias resulting from the strong APOE association affect genome-wide results and interpretation of some recently reported associations. We show that a locus such as APOE, with large effects and strong association with disease, can lead to samples that require appropriate adjustment for this locus to avoid both false positive and false negative evidence of association. We suggest that similar adjustments may also be needed for many other large multi-site studies. © 2011 Wijsman et al

    Evolution of Traumatic Parenchymal Intracranial Hematomas (ICHs): Comparison of Hematoma and Edema Components

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    This study seeks to quantitatively assess evolution of traumatic ICHs over the first 24 h and investigate its relationship with functional outcome. Early expansion of traumatic intracranial hematoma (ICH) is common, but previous studies have focused on the high density (blood) component. Hemostatic therapies may increase the risk of peri-hematoma infarction and associated increased cytotoxic edema. Assessing the magnitude and evolution of ICH and edema represented by high and low density components on computerized tomography (CT) may be informative for designing therapies targeted at traumatic ICH. CT scans from participants in the COBRIT (Citicoline Brain Injury Trial) study were analyzed using MIPAV software. CT scans from patients with non-surgical intraparenchymal ICHs at presentation and approximately 24 h later (±12 h) were selected. Regions of high density and low density were quantitatively measured. The relationship between volumes of high and low density were compared to several outcome measures, including Glasgow Outcome Score—Extended (GOSE) and Disability Rating Score (DRS). Paired scans from 84 patients were analyzed. The median time between the first and second scan was 22.79 h (25%ile 20.11 h; 75%ile 27.49 h). Over this time frame, hematoma and edema volumes increased >50% in 34 (40%) and 46 (55%) respectively. The correlation between the two components was low (r = 0.39, p = 0.002). There was a weak correlation between change in edema volume and GOSE at 6 months (r = 0.268, p = 0.037), change in edema volume and DRS at 3 and 6 months (r = −0.248, p = 0.037 and r = 0.358, p = 0.005, respectively), change in edema volume and COWA at 6 months (r = 0.272, p = 0.049), and between final edema volume and COWA at 6 months (r = 0.302, p = 0.028). To conclude, both high density and low density components of traumatic ICHs expand significantly in the first 2 days after TBI. In our study, there does not appear to be a relationship between hematoma volume or hematoma expansion and functional outcome, while there is a weak relationship between edema expansion and functional outcome
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