1,751 research outputs found

    What are good teamwork skills and how do students learn them?

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    As modern STEM programmes move to focus on a more skills based curriculum, a different approach to conceptualising learning is required. Learning skills is a very different process to learning a list of technical information. In the same way that becoming fluent in a language requires more than learning a list of vocabulary. Curricula are addressing this by moving away from solely using knowledge transfer methods and including multiple experiential learning experiences. These experiential learning experiences allow students to recontextualise existing knowledge, add experience or tacit knowledge to their learning and practise professional skills such as problem solving and communication skills repeatedly

    Mode I fracture characterization of human bone using the DCB test

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    Purpose – Fracture characterization of human cortical bone under pure mode I loading was performed in this work. The purpose of this paper is to validate the proposed test and procedure concerning fracture characterization of human cortical bone under pure mode I loading. Design/methodology/approach – A miniaturized version of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test was used for the experimental tests. A data reduction scheme based on crack equivalent concept and Timoshenko beam theory is proposed to overcome difficulties inherent to crack length monitoring during the test. The application of the method propitiates an easy determination of the Resistance-curves (R-curves) that allow to define the fracture energy under mode I loading from the plateau region. The average value of fracture energy was subsequently used in a numerical analysis with element method involving cohesive zone modelling. Findings – The excellent agreement obtained reveals that the proposed test and associated methodology is quite effective concerning fracture characterization of human cortical bone under pure mode I loading. Originality/value – A miniaturized version of traditional DCB test was proposed for cortical human bone fracture characterization under mode I loading owing to size restrictions imposed by human femur. In fact, DCB specimen propitiates a longer length for self-similar crack propagation without undertaking spurious effects. As a consequence, a R-curve was obtained allowing an adequate characterization of cortical bone fracture under mode I loading

    DNA methylation regulates expression of VEGF-R2 (KDR) and VEGF-R3 (FLT4)

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    Abstract Background Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGF-Rs) are important regulators for angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. VEGFs and VEGF-Rs are not only expressed on endothelial cells but also on various subtypes of solid tumors and leukemias contributing to the growth of the malignant cells. This study was performed to examine whether VEGF-R2 (KDR) and VEGF-R3 (FLT4) are regulated by DNA methylation. Methods Real-time (RT) PCR analysis was performed to quantify KDR and FLT4 expression in some ninety leukemia/lymphoma cell lines, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). Western blot analyses and flow cytometric analyses confirmed results at the protein level. After bisulfite conversion of DNA we determined the methylation status of KDR and FLT4 by DNA sequencing and by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Western blot analyses were performed to examine the effect of VEGF-C on p42/44 MAPK activation. Results Expression of KDR and FLT4 was observed in cell lines from various leukemic entities, but not in lymphoma cell lines: 16% (10/62) of the leukemia cell lines expressed KDR, 42% (27/65) were FLT4 positive. None of thirty cell lines representing six lymphoma subtypes showed more than marginal expression of KDR or FLT4. Western blot analyses confirmed KDR and FLT4 protein expression in HDMECs, HUVECs and in cell lines with high VEGF-R mRNA levels. Mature VEGF-C induced p42/44 MAPK activation in the KDR- /FLT4+ cell line OCI-AML1 verifying the model character of this cell line for VEGF-C signal transduction studies. Bisulfite sequencing and MSP revealed that GpG islands in the promoter regions of KDR and FLT4 were unmethylated in HUVECs, HDMECs and KDR + and FLT4 + cell lines, whereas methylated cell lines did not express these genes. In hypermethylated cell lines, KDR and FLT4 were re-inducible by treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine, confirming epigenetic regulation of both genes. Conclusions Our data show that VEGF-Rs KDR and FLT4 are silenced by DNA methylation. However, if the promoters are unmethylated, other factors (e.g. transactivation factors) determine the extent of KDR and FLT4 expression

    Evolution number of litigation cases and expenditure with monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) (Bevacizumab, Cetuximab and Panitumumab) and tirosine kinase inhibitor (Regorafenib) for the treatment of cancer in Minas Gerais-Brazil : A preliminary analysis from 2009 to 2016

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    Introduction: The last decade was marked by the widespread use of molecular biological agents in combination with 5-FU / oxaliplatin or irinotecan-containing regimens in the treatment of cancer. Such biological medicines have significantly increased the costs of oncological treatment, leading to concerns about the future sustainability of drug policy and, as a consequence, health systems with universal access to health care. In the case of Brazil, the tree MoAbs BEVACIZUMAB(BEVA), CETUXIMAB(CETUX), PANITUMUMAB(PANIT) and one tirosin kinase inhibitor REGORAFENIB(REGORA) compared in this study can only be used by the patient when there is a litigation against the State, since they are not incorporated into the Single System of Health-SUS. Objectives: To evaluate the evolution number of litigation cases and expenditure with monoclonal antibodies(MoAbs) (Bevacizumab, Cetuximab and Panitumumab) and tirosin kinase inhibitor (Regorafenib) for the treatment of cancer in Minas Gerais-Brazil. Method: Retrospective descriptive study whose judicial information was extracted from the database of the Minas Gerais State Secretariat - SES-MG. The judicial actions were filed against the State of Minas Gerais for Cancer treatment and refer to the period from January 2009 to December 2016. The study was cut from the judicialized MoAbs (BEVA, CETUX, PANIT) and tirosin kinase inhibitor (REGORA) for the treatment of Colorectal Cancer (CCR). The cost of the treatments was calculated based on the prices of the Câmara de Regulação do Mercado de Medicamentos (CMED) ANVISA, taking into account the official dollar exchange rate of the Central Bank on January 31, 2018 and there is no adjustment for inflation. Results and discussion: Preliminary results showed that in the period between 2009 and 2016, 1024 lawsuits were filed against the State of Minas Gerais for cancer treatment, making 766 for BEVA, 206 for CETUX, 35 for PANIT and 17 for REGORA . The total cost obtained considering a 6-month overall survival for each patient was $ 22,260,536. In Brazil, the growing number of litigation and drug costs (BEVA, CETUX, PANIT and REGORA) per year is worrying, considering the increase of 5.100% for judicial actions and 1899% for treatment costs in the period 2009 to 2016 (TABLE 1). Conclusion: The exponential increase in lawsuits against the State of Minas Gerais demonstrates the growing pressure on the resources available to attend a reduced number of patients, who are available to judicialize treatments outside universal health coverage, which is already guaranteed right by the Brazilian constitution
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