198 research outputs found

    Anti-transpirant effects on vine physiology, berry and wine composition of cv. Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L.) Grown in South Italy

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    In viticulture, global warming requires reconsideration of current production models. At the base of this need there are some emerging phenomena: modification of phenological phases; acceleration of the maturation process of grapes, with significant increases in the concentration of sugar musts; decoupling between technological grape maturity and phenolic maturity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a natural anti-transpirant on grapevine physiology, berry, and wine composition of Aglianico cultivar. For two years, Aglianico vines were treated at veraison with the anti-transpirant Vapor Gard and compared with a control sprayed with only water. A bunch thinning was also applied to both treatments. The effectiveness of Vapor Gard were assessed through measurements of net photosynthesis and transpiration and analyzing the vegetative, productive and qualitative parameters. The results demonstrate that the application of antitranspirant reduced assimilation and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, berry sugar accumulation, and wine alcohol content. No significant differences between treatments were observed for other berry and wine compositional parameters. This method may be a useful tool to reduce berry sugar content and to produce wines with a lower alcohol content

    Corporate Social Performance and Non-Financial Reporting in the Cruise Industry: Paving the way towards UN Agenda 2030

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    This article investigates the role of accounting disciplines in assessing and fostering corporate social performance (CSP) of business organisations to meet the UN Agenda 2030. Drawing from legitimacy theory, this qualitative study analyses if and how non-financial reporting positively affects and fosters CSP practices and outcomes within the cruise industry. Specifically, using a case study methodology, a major cruise company has been analysed outlining its sustainable behaviour, through the manual content analysis of sustainability reports (2016–2017–2018), in achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs) introduced by the UN Agenda 2030. The findings outline that the cruise company presents a clear sustainability and community orientation and adopts several initiatives, mostly focused on environmental and social issues, addressed to meet the 17 SDGs, where reputation and positive image have been recognised as the major antecedents in the perspective of CSP. This study contributes to the literature giving a broader and different reading of sustainability reporting as a “booster” of the CSP in meeting the SDGs and a further interesting application of the legitimacy theory, and offers managerial implications to systematise the content of non-financial reporting by improving the quality of disclosure to achieve the SDGs, with focus on CSP processes, outcomes and ways

    Variations of peel essential oils during fruit ripening in four lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.) cultivars

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    Lemon processing procedures yield a significant amount of waste as peels, which are 57% of processed lemons and represent a possible source of bioactive compounds (essential oils, EOs). EOs were extracted from lemon fruits belonging to four cultivars harvested at four different sampling times (25 October, 23 November, 20 December, 1 February), characterized, and quantified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Slow-release fertilization and Trichoderma harzianum-based biostimulant for the nursery production of young olive trees (Olea Europaea L.)

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    Received: May 8th, 2021 ; Accepted: July 30th, 2021 ; Published: October 5th, 2021 ; Corresponding author: [email protected], [email protected] of local olive cultivars is a key factor for the medium-term development strategy of the Italian olive agroindustry. This involves enhancements in both, cultural practices and nursery techniques. The aim of this research was the evaluation in nursery, on vegetative growth and root development of young olive plants, of two different treatments: substrate enrichment with Osmocote®, a slow-release fertilizer, and Trianum-P a Trichoderma harzianum based biostimulant applied as foliar spray. The trial was carried out on Rotondella and Salella, two autochthonous olive cultivars from the Campania region (southern Italy). Central axis height, number and length of lateral shoots, leaf number and trunk base diameter were monitored during the experiment. Eight months later, all plants were uprooted, and further parameters were measured: total leaf area, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA), fresh and dry weight of the leaves, shoots, trunk, roots, and total dry matter. The canopy/root ratio (C/R) was also determined. Overall, the Osmocote® treatment caused a significant increase in the vegetative growth parameters for both cultivars, with a more evident effect on the development of the canopy organs. The observation reported in the present work can represent a convenient piece of information particularly in relation to stress resilience in nursery production

    GEO and sustainable performance: The moderating role of GTD and environmental consciousness,

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    Purpose Congruent with the world-wide call to combat global warming concerns and advance intellectual capital (IC), organisations are being pressured to ensure that IC is managed effectively to encourage green initiatives. In this regard, green entrepreneurial orientation (GEO) is emerged as a relevant IC. GEO is recognised as a mitigating factor of environmental degradation in the literature. Although prior literature has observed the nexus between GEO and firm performance, the role of GEO in leveraging sustainable performance has been limitedly explored. This study explored the relationship between IC as a GEO and enterprises' sustainable performance through the moderating roles of environmental consciousness and green technology dynamism (GTD) in the context of two developing countries (Pakistan and Malaysia). Design/methodology/approach Data provided by 296 respondents from 264 manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan and Malaysia were analysed through a three-wave research design. AMOS 23 software was used to perform covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM), while hierarchical regression analysis was applied using the SPSS 25 software to examine the causal relationships in the model. Findings IC as a GEO significantly influences sustainable performance, akin to environmental consciousness and GTD. Besides, GTD has a significant moderating effect between GEO and financial and environmental performance in Pakistan and Malaysia but not between GEO and social performance. Environmental consciousness has a significant moderating role in the impact of GEO on financial performance in Pakistan and Malaysia, but not on social and environmental performance. Practical implications The study's findings are useful for managers of Pakistani and Malaysian manufacturing SMEs to identify ways to encourage GEO to improve sustainable performance in their firms. The findings suggest that managers should effectively implement GTD and environmental consciousness to strengthen the GEO and sustainable performance relationship. Managers can use GEO concretely as a reference for the companies that intend to support the United Nation SDG-2030 agenda and to find new business opportunities for the implementation of sustainable development. Originality/value To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to examine the link between GEO and sustainable performance in developing countries such as Pakistan and Malaysia. Although the influence of various intangible assets or IC on sustainable performance has been widely examined in the literature, the role of GEO as IC has been limitedly explored. This study extends the literature by adding to the knowledge of GEO as a form of firms' IC that enhances boundary conditions in developing countries

    Artificial Intelligence in the Water–Energy–Food Model: A Holistic Approach towards Sustainable Development Goals

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    This study aims to analyze the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in the Water–Energy–Food (WEF) nexus under the lens of institutional, stakeholder, and innovation theories. Specifically, this study focuses on AI as the technology adopted by companies to promote Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A structured literature review has been conducted on 94 articles published from 1990 to 2021 in ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. This study develops an in-depth review of the literature on the main articles arguing about these issues. The findings highlight the increasing relevance of AI in the water, energy, and food industries individually considered, but the study of AI as a connector between water, energy, and food to achieve SDGs is still under investigation. Research on AI for WEF nexus management has adopted mostly a technical perspective, neglecting the relevance of management tools and the business model concept. Most of the articles did not adopt a specific theoretical lens, but scholars recognize the need to adopt a multi-stakeholder approach and the important role played by AI and other digital technologies to address the WEF nexus challenge. This study proposes an integrated approach for managing the nexus through AI technologies to meet sustainable and responsible business models. The gap between research and policy making could be filled by combining scientific data and policy needs with inclusive tools that are technically viable for sustainable resource utilization

    Digitalization and artificial knowledge for accountability in SCM: a systematic literature review

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    Purpose: In this study, the authors examine artificial knowledge as a fundamental stream of knowledge management for sustainable and resilient business models in supply chain management (SCM). The study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of artificial knowledge and digitalization as key enablers of the improvement of SCM accountability and sustainable performance towards the UN 2030 Agenda. Design/methodology/approach: Using the SCOPUS database and Google Scholar, the authors analyzed 135 English-language publications from 1990 to 2022 to chart the pattern of knowledge production and dissemination in the literature. The data were collected, reviewed and peer-reviewed before conducting bibliometric analysis and a systematic literature review to support future research agenda. Findings: The results highlight that artificial knowledge and digitalization are linked to the UN 2030 Agenda. The analysis further identifies the main issues in achieving sustainable and resilient SCM business models. Based on the results, the authors develop a conceptual framework for artificial knowledge and digitalization in SCM to increase accountability and sustainable performance, especially in times of sudden crises when business resilience is imperative. Research limitations/implications: The study results add to the extant literature by examining artificial knowledge and digitalization from the resilience theory perspective. The authors suggest that different strategic perspectives significantly promote resilience for SCM digitization and sustainable development. Notably, fostering diverse peer exchange relationships can help stimulate peer knowledge and act as a palliative mechanism that builds digital knowledge to strengthen and drive future possibilities. Practical implications: This research offers valuable guidance to supply chain practitioners, managers and policymakers in re-thinking, re-formulating and re-shaping organizational processes to meet the UN 2030 Agenda, mainly by introducing artificial knowledge in digital transformation training and education programs. In doing so, firms should focus not simply on digital transformation but also on cultural transformation to enhance SCM accountability and sustainable performance in resilient business models. Originality/value: This study is, to the authors' best knowledge, among the first to conceptualize artificial knowledge and digitalization issues in SCM. It further integrates resilience theory with institutional theory, legitimacy theory and stakeholder theory as the theoretical foundations of artificial knowledge in SCM, based on firms' responsibility to fulfill the sustainable development goals under the UN's 2030 Agenda

    Endophytic Fungi and Ecological Fitness of Chestnuts

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    Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are plants of relevant economic interest in the agro-sylvicultural contexts of mountain regions throughout the temperate zone, particularly in the northern hemisphere. In recent years, several biological adversities have repeatedly endangered species belonging to this genus, calling for coordinated actions addressed to contrast their decline. These actions have mainly focused on the control of key pests/pathogens and the improvement of resistance/tolerance by the plant host, while the role of microorganisms as mediators of interactions between plants and the noxious agents has been less considered, essentially by reason of a limited knowledge on their ecological impact. In line with the increasing awareness of the basic importance of microbial symbionts in regulating plant fitness in both natural and crop contexts, this paper offers an overview on the occurrence and effects of endophytic fungi of chestnuts

    High temperature and humidity affect pollen viability and longevity in Olea europaea L.

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    Olea europaea L. is a crop typical of the Mediterranean area that has an important role in economy, society, and culture of this region. Climate change is expected to have significant impact on this crop, which is typically adapted to certain pedo-climatic characteristics of restricted geographic areas. In this scenario, the aim of this study was to evaluate the time-course response of pollen viability to different combinations of temperature and humidity. The study was performed comparing flowering time and pollen functionality of O. europaea from twelve cultivars growing at the same site belonging to the Campania olive collection in Italy. Pollen was incubated at 12◦C, 22◦C, and 36◦C in combination with 50% RH or 100% RH treatments for 5 days. The results highlighted that a drastic loss of pollen viability occurs when pollen is subjected to a combination of high humidity and high temperature, whereas 50% RH had less impact on pollen thermotolerance, because most cultivars preserved a high pollen viability over time. In the ongoing climate change scenario, it is critical to assess the effect of increasing temperatures on sensitive reproductive traits such as pollen viability to predict possible reduction in crop yield. Moreover, the results highlighted that the effect of temperature increase on pollen thermotolerance should be evaluated in combination with other environmental factors such as humidity conditions. The screening of olive cultivars based on pollen thermotolerance is critical in the ongoing climate change scenario, especially considering that the economic value of this species relies on successful fertilization and embryo development, and also that production cycle of Olea europaea can be longer than a hundred years
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