11,289 research outputs found

    Common vocabularies for collective intelligence - work in progress

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    Web based applications and tools offer a great potential to increase the efficiency of information flow and communication among different agents during emergencies. Among the different factors, technical and non technical, that hinder the integration of an information model in emergency management sector, is a lack of a common, shared vocabulary. This paper furthers previous work in the area of ontology development, and presents a summary and overview of the goal, process and methodology to construct a shared set of metadata that can be used to map existing vocabulary. This paper is a work in progress report

    Neuronal oxidative injury in the development of the epileptic disease : a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches

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    Epileptic diseases affect about 50 million people in the world and approximately 30% of patients diagnosed with epilepsy are unresponsive to current medications. For these reasons, primary prevention of epilepsy represents one of the priorities in epilepsy research. Intracellular oxido-reductive (redox) state is well known to play a crucial role, contributing to the maintenance of the proper function of biomolecules. Therefore, oxidative stress results in functional cellular disruption and cellular damage and may cause subsequent cell death via oxidation of proteins, lipids, and nucleotides. Recently, the role of oxidative stress in the early stage and in the progression of epileptic disorders has begun to be recognized. The early molecular response to oxidative stress represents a short-term reversible phenomenon that precedes higher and irreversible forms of oxidation. This article reviews the current understanding of the epileptogenic phenomena related to seizure-induced oxidative injury as potential ā€œcritical periodā€ therapeutic targets for the prevention of chronic epileptic disorder.peer-reviewe

    Industrial Policies in Developing Countries: History and Perspectives

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    This paper presents a historical and empirical account of the role played by government intervention in the form of industrial policies in spurring development and growth in developing countries in the last fifty years. Adopting the taxonomy proposed in Cimoli et alt. (2008), it describes the set of industrial policies implemented since the end of WWII to today in a number of developing countries. Which are the characteristics of successful industrial policies? Are there industrial policies, among the ones that have worked in the past, which can be also useful in the present context? Is there a fit-all recipe, or the high degree of country heterogeneity makes impossible to identify any general effective industrial policy? These are some of the questions this papers tries to suggest some answers.Industrial policy,Developing Countries,East Asia,Latin America

    Uncertainty, Trade Integration and the Optimal Level of Protection in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods

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    This paper analyzes how increasing trade integration affects individual utility when the international specialization pattern is stochastic, i.e. when the number of varieties each country produces depends on the realization of a random variable. I employ a Ricardian continuum of goods model to show that in this case a trade off emerges. As in the standard model, higher trade integration reduces prices and increases expected real income. However, higher trade integration, reducing the number of active sectors in the economy, also increases the displacement cost the worker would suffer in a bad state (i.e. when the sector she is employed into has to close down because, ex-post, the foreign countryā€™s competing sector results to be more efficient). The main result of the model is that there exists an optimal level of protection that it is higher the smaller the price reduction induced by trade integration and the more technologically similar are countries.Trade Intergration,Ricardian Model with a continuum of goods,Optimal protection,Uncertainty

    Uncertainty, trade integration and the optimal level of protection in a Ricardian model with a continuum of goods

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    This paper analyzes how increasing trade integration affects individual utility when the international specialization pattern is stochastic, i.e. when the number of varieties each country produces depends on the realization of a random variable. I employ a Ricardian continuum of goods model to show that in this case a trade off emerges. As in the standard model, higher trade integration reduces prices and increases expected real income. However, higher trade integration, reducing the number of active sectors in the economy, also increases the displacement cost the worker would suffer in a bad state (i.e. when the sector she is employed into has to close down because, ex-post, the foreign countryā€™s competing sector results to be more efficient). The main result of the model is that there exists an optimal level of protection that it is higher the smaller the price reduction induced by trade integration and the more technologically similar are countries.Uncertainty; optimal protection; Ricardian model with a continuum of goods

    Uncertainty, Gains from Specialization and the Welfare State

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    This paper presents a specific-factor model showing that, under technological uncertainty and risk averse agents, increasing trade integration is not always welfare increasing. The reason is that changes in the country's specialization level induced by trade integration produce both benefits and cost. Increasing specialization increases wages (efficiency gains), but, modifying the tax scheme of the Welfare State, it also increases income variance. The model identifies a trade-off, absent in the standard deterministic model, between gains from specialization and the higher cost of the Welfare State. It is shown that, depending on the parameter's configuration, it exists a specialization level beyond which aggregate expected income under free trade becomes lower than that achieved under autarky. ļæ½Free Trade,Specialization gains,Welfare State,Uncertainty

    A study of stability analysis of pyroclastic covers based on electrical resistivity measurements

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    Usually, the degree of stability of a slope is quantified by the Factor of Safety whose values depend on physical and mechanical soil properties analyzed on samples of much reduced sizes or referring to very small soil volumes around porous probes. To overcome the limit of punctual information, we propose a semi-empirical approach based on the use of geophysical methods and the employment of a geophysical Factor of Safety recently introduced by the authors in terms of local resistivities and slope angles. In this paper, we show an application of our proposal on a test area of about 2000 m2 on Sarno Mountains (Campania Region - Southern Italy), where shallow landslides involving pyroclastic soils periodically occur triggered by critical rainfall events. Starting from two resistivity tomography surveys performed on the test area in autumn and spring, we obtained maps of the geophysical Factor of Safety at different depths for the two seasons. We also estimated the values of the Factor of Safety by using the infinite slope model in the dry and saturated scenario. A comparison between the values of the geophysical and geotechnical Factor of Safety shows advantages and disadvantages of our approach.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figure

    SLDV technology for measurement of mistuned bladed disc vibration

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    Bladed discs are very sensitive structures and the amplitude vibration of each blade can vary significantly from blade to blade due to a series of factors such as geometrical inhomogeneity between blades or material properties. These factors lead to bladed disks mistuned thus the forced response amplitudes can be much higher than the level predicted for a tuned assembly. Designed models need to be ā€œvalidateā€ to predict the response of a real bladed disc within the tolerances set by the manufactures and this process is very expensive as well as difficult. The validation process needs ā€œreference dataā€ as fundamental input against what all predictions can be compared and validated. Data that can be provided both under stationary conditions and under rotating conditions and the latter is the most difficult to achieve, especially for bladed disc assemblies which are very sensitive to any structural modification as it could be attaching a transducer to measure vibrations. There are contact-less measurement techniques available which, however, provide limited information because they can measure only limited areas of the vibrating structures. The aim of this study is to design measurement methods, using a standard Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) and to integrate it into a software platform which will be able to handle a series of measurement tasks both under stationary and rotating conditions. The main contribution of this thesis is to extend the use of Continuous Scanning LDV (CSLDV) to the rotating structures, such as bladed discs, thus to perform synchronous measurements. Hence, a bladed disc is needed to be designed to perform vibration predictions and measurements and a mathematical model of the measurement test to control, critically, all possible sources of errors involved in measurement under rotating conditions; all these to produce a robust measurement method. While the primary focus is the measurement method, the study also extends to evaluation of the sensitivity properties of the bladed disk test pieces that are the object of the measurement tool

    Has the Chilean Neo-Liberal Experiment Run Out of Fuel? A View on Specialisation, Technological Gaps and Catching-Up

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    Due to an extraordinary growth performance during the last two decades the Chilean neo-liberal model of development, based on the exploitation of the countryā€™s static comparative advantages, has turned into a benchmark for most developing countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the long term sustainability of the Chilean neo-liberal model of development. We present new empirical results obtained by using CAN2000 as well as input-output analysis that describe the Chilean model of development during the period 1986-1998. On the basis of these stylised facts, a simple ricardian-evolutionary model is developed in order to offer an interpretative framework to discuss the conditions under which Chile could maintain the current catching-up process in the long run. The main conclusion is that, with the recent ceasing of the push effects of the neo-liberal policies, it is unlikely that an increase of the export volume, given its structural characteristics, will be sufficient to this end. Indeed, an increase of the countryā€™s sectoral industrial interdependence and an improvement of its international specialisation pattern towards goods with higher technological content and higher income elasticity of world demand are necessary conditions for maintaining the current catching-up process in the long run.Chile, Technological gaps, International specialisation, Catching-up, Neo-Liberal Structural Reforms
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