2,137 research outputs found

    Gut microbiota profiles and characterization of cultivable fungal isolates in IBS patients

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    Studies so far conducted on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been focused mainly on the role of gut bacterial dysbiosis in modulating the intestinal permeability, inflammation, and motility, with consequences on the quality of life. Limited evidences showed a potential involvement of gut fungal communities. Here, the gut bacterial and fungal microbiota of a cohort of IBS patients have been characterized and compared with that of healthy subjects (HS). The IBS microbial community structure differed significantly compared to HS. In particular, we observed an enrichment of bacterial taxa involved in gut inflammation, such as Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, Fusobacteria, Gemella, and Rothia, as well as depletion of health-promoting bacterial genera, such as Roseburia and Faecalibacterium. Gut microbial profiles in IBS patients differed also in accordance with constipation. Sequence analysis of the gut mycobiota showed enrichment of Saccharomycetes in IBS. Culturomics analysis of fungal isolates from feces showed enrichment of Candida spp. displaying from IBS a clonal expansion and a distinct genotypic profiles and different phenotypical features when compared to HS of Candida albicans isolates. Alongside the well-characterized gut bacterial dysbiosis in IBS, this study shed light on a yet poorly explored fungal component of the intestinal ecosystem, the gut mycobiota. Our results showed a differential fungal community in IBS compared to HS, suggesting potential for new insights on the involvement of the gut mycobiota in IBS. KEY POINTS: Comparison of gut microbiota and mycobiota between IBS and healthy subjects Investigation of cultivable fungi in IBS and healthy subjects Candida albicans isolates result more virulent in IBS subjects compared to healthy subjects

    Safety and feasibility of outpatient surgery in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Purpose: Most of endourological procedures along the urinary tract have been widely practiced as outpatient operations, including surgery for BPH. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess safety and feasibility of outpatient surgery for patients suffering from symptomatic BPH candidate for endoscopic disobstruction. Materials and methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Embase were searched up until March 30, 2020. MINORS tool was utilized to assess the quality of included studies and a pooled measure of failure or event rate (FR, ER) estimate was calculated. Further sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, and meta-regression were conducted to investigate contribution of moderators to heterogeneity. Results: Twenty studies with a total of 1626 patients treated according to outpatient criteria for endoscopic BPH surgery were included. In total, 18 studies reporting data on immediate hospital readmission and/or inability to discharge after endoscopic procedure presented FR estimates ranging from 1.7% to 51.1%. Pooled FR estimate was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.2%-10.3%); Heterogeneity: Q=76.85; d.f.=17, p<.001; I2= 75.12%. Subgroup analysis according to surgical technique revealed difference among the three approaches with pooled FR of 3% (95%CI: 1%-4.9%), 7.1% (95%CI: 3.9-10.4) and 11.8% (95%CI: 7-16.7%) for TURP, Green-light and HoLEP respectively (p<.001). At meta-regression analysis, none of the retrieved covariates were able to significantly influence the cumulative outcomes reported. ER for postoperative complications and early outpatient visit showed a pooled estimate of 18.6% (95%CI: 13.2%-23.9%) and 7.7% (95%CI: 4.3%-11%) respectively. Conclusions: Our analysis revealed how transurethral procedures for BPH on an outpatient setting are overall reliable and safe. Of note, there were significant outcome differences between groups with regard of type of surgical procedure, perioperative prostate volume and discharge protocol suggesting the need for further prospective analysis to better elucidate the best strategy in such outpatient conduct

    THE PRATI DI STUORES/STUORES WIESEN SECTION (DOLOMITES, ITALY): A CANDIDATE GLOBAL STRATOTYPE SECTION AND POINT FOR THE BASE OF THE CARNIAN STAGE

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    The Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen section (Dolomites, Italy) is proposed as a candidate Global Stratotype Section and Point for the base of the Carnian Stage. In addition to being a famous, richly fossiliferous locality, it includes the type-section of the Cordevolian substage. The section is located near Pralongià, along the southern slope of the crest separating the Badia/Abtei and Cordevole valleys. Below the levels with Trachyceras aon, the section contains a rich ammonoid fauna that chacterizes the lower part of the Regoledanus Subzone and subsequently records the first appearances of the mid-high latitude genus Daxatina (Daxatina sp., D. cf. canadensis) and of traditional Trachyceras with species different from T. aon. Moreover, the Daxatina cf. canadensis Subzone is recognised above the Regoledanus Subzone. Very rare conodonts of the Budurovignatus group and species of Gladigondolella from the diebeli Assemblage Zone occur. Gondolella polygnatyformis, already known from the Aon Subzone, is absent. Palynomorphs, foraminifers, gastropods, bivalves, brachiopods, microcrinoids and holothurian sclerites were studied. Variations in frequency and taxonomic diversity of these faunas suggest anaerobic-disaerobic bottom conditions for the lower-middle part of the section (0-105 m), followed by a more stable oxygen content in the upper portion. Magnetostratigraphy showed four intervals with normal polarity and three intervals with reversed polarity. The Daxatina cf. canadensis Subzone falls close to the normal polarity interval S2n. The present study proposes the FAD of the cosmopolitan genus Daxatina as a marker of the base of the Carnian Stage, placing it at a lower stratigraphic level than previously indicated in the Stuores area. The Prati di Stuores section is proposed as GSSP of the Ladinian-Carnian boundary.&nbsp

    The Italian National Project of Astrobiology-Life in Space-Origin, Presence, Persistence of Life in Space, from Molecules to Extremophiles

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    The \u2018\u2018Life in Space\u2019\u2019 project was funded in the wake of the Italian Space Agency\u2019s proposal for the development of a network of institutions and laboratories conceived to implement Italian participation in space astrobiology experiments

    Multicentre Italian study of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents, preliminary data as at 10 April 2020

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    Data on features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children and adolescents are scarce. We report preliminary results of an Italian multicentre study comprising 168 laboratory-confirmed paediatric cases (median: 2.3 years, range: 1 day-17.7 years, 55.9% males), of which 67.9% were hospitalised and 19.6% had comorbidities. Fever was the most common symptom, gastrointestinal manifestations were frequent; two children required intensive care, five had seizures, 49 received experimental treatments and all recovered

    Clinical and laboratory features associated with macrophage activation syndrome in Still's disease: data from the international AIDA Network Still's Disease Registry

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    : To characterize clinical and laboratory signs of patients with still's disease experiencing macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and identify factors associated with MAS development. patients with still's disease classified according to internationally accepted criteria were enrolled in the autoInflammatory disease alliance (AIDA) still's disease registry. clinical and laboratory features observed during the inflammatory attack complicated by MAS were included in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated to MAS development. A total of 414 patients with Still's disease were included; 39 (9.4%) of them developed MAS during clinical history. At univariate analyses, the following variables were significantly associated with MAS: classification of arthritis based on the number of joints involved (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.003), liver involvement (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.04), hepatomegaly (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.02), hepatic failure (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.01), axillary lymphadenopathy (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.04), pneumonia (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.03), acute respiratory distress syndrome (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001), platelet abnormalities (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001), high serum ferritin levels (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.009), abnormal liver function tests (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.009), hypoalbuminemia (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.002), increased LDH (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001), and LDH serum levels (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001). at multivariate analysis, hepatomegaly (OR 8.7, 95% CI 1.9-52.6, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.007) and monoarthritis (OR 15.8, 95% CI 2.9-97.1, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001), were directly associated with MAS, while the decade of life at Still's disease onset (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.045), a normal platelet count (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.8, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.034) or thrombocytosis (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.0-0.2, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.008) resulted to be protective. clinical and laboratory factors associated with MAS development have been identified in a large cohort of patients based on real-life data

    Beta-Blocker Use in Older Hospitalized Patients Affected by Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Italian Survey From the REPOSI Register

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    Beta (ő≤)-blockers (BB) are useful in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, the use of BBs could induce bronchoconstriction due to ő≤2-blockade. For this reason, both the ESC and GOLD guidelines strongly suggest the use of selective ő≤1-BB in patients with HF and COPD. However, low adherence to guidelines was observed in multiple clinical settings. The aim of the study was to investigate the BBs use in older patients affected by HF and COPD, recorded in the REPOSI register. Of 942 patients affected by HF, 47.1% were treated with BBs. The use of BBs was significantly lower in patients with HF and COPD than in patients affected by HF alone, both at admission and at discharge (admission, 36.9% vs. 51.3%; discharge, 38.0% vs. 51.7%). In addition, no further BB users were found at discharge. The probability to being treated with a BB was significantly lower in patients with HF also affected by COPD (adj. OR, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.37-0.67), while the diagnosis of COPD was not associated with the choice of selective ő≤1-BB (adj. OR, 95% CI: 1.33, 0.76-2.34). Despite clear recommendations by clinical guidelines, a significant underuse of BBs was also observed after hospital discharge. In COPD affected patients, physicians unreasonably reject BBs use, rather than choosing a ő≤1-BB. The expected improvement of the BB prescriptions after hospitalization was not observed. A multidisciplinary approach among hospital physicians, general practitioners, and pharmacologists should be carried out for better drug management and adherence to guideline recommendations

    A Roadmap for HEP Software and Computing R&D for the 2020s

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    Particle physics has an ambitious and broad experimental programme for the coming decades. This programme requires large investments in detector hardware, either to build new facilities and experiments, or to upgrade existing ones. Similarly, it requires commensurate investment in the R&D of software to acquire, manage, process, and analyse the shear amounts of data to be recorded. In planning for the HL-LHC in particular, it is critical that all of the collaborating stakeholders agree on the software goals and priorities, and that the efforts complement each other. In this spirit, this white paper describes the R&D activities required to prepare for this software upgrade.Peer reviewe

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an