3,138 research outputs found

    Feynman graphs and the large dimensional limit of multipartite entanglement

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    We are interested in the properties of multipartite entanglement of a system composed by nn dd-level parties (qudits). Focussing our attention on pure states we want to tackle the problem of the maximization of the entanglement for such systems. In particular we effort the problem trying to minimize the purity of the system. It has been shown that not for all systems this function can reach its lower bound, however it can be proved that for all values of nn a dd can always be found such that the lower bound can be reached. In this paper we examine the high-temperature expansion of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartition considering its optimization problem as a problem of statistical mechanics. In particular we prove that the series characterizing the expansion converges and we analyze the behavior of each term of the series as d→∞d\to \infty.Comment: 29 pages, 11 figure

    Convolutional neural network for track seed filtering at the CMS HLT

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    Starting with Run III, future development projects for the Large Hadron Collider will constantly bring nominal luminosity increase, with the ultimate goal of reaching a peak luminosity of 5 · 1034 cm−2 s−1 for ATLAS and CMS experiments. This rise in luminosity will result in an increased number of simultaneous proton collisions (pileup), up to 200, that will pose new challenges for the CMS detector and, specifically, for track reconstruction in the Silicon Pixel Tracker. One of the first steps of the track finding workflow is the creation of track seeds, i.e., compatible pairs of hits, that are subsequently fed to higher-level pattern recognition steps. However, the set of compatible hit pairs is highly affected by combinatorial background. A possible way of reducing this effect is taking into account the shape of the hit pixel cluster to check the compatibility between two hits. To each doublet is attached a collection of two images built with the ADC levels of the pixels forming the hit cluster. Thus, the task of fake rejection can be seen as an image classification problem for which Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been widely proven to provide reliable results. In this work we present our studies on CNNs applications to the filtering of track pixel seeds

    Adverse Childhood Life Events and Postpartum Psychosis in Bipolar Disorder

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    Background Women with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of postpartum psychosis. Adverse childhood life events have been associated with depression in the postpartum period, but have been little studied in relation to postpartum psychosis. In this study we investigated whether adverse childhood life events are associated with postpartum psychosis in a large sample of women with bipolar I disorder. Methods Participants were 432 parous women with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder recruited into the Bipolar Disorder Research Network (www.BDRN.org). Diagnoses and lifetime psychopathology, including perinatal episodes, were obtained via a semi-structured interview (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; Wing et al., 1990) and case-notes. Adverse childhood life events were assessed via self-report and case-notes, and compared between women with postpartum psychosis (n=208) and those without a lifetime history of perinatal mood episodes (n=224). Results There was no significant difference in the rate of any adverse childhood life event, including childhood sexual abuse, or in the total number of adverse childhood life events between women who experienced postpartum psychosis and those without a lifetime history of perinatal mood episodes, even after controlling for demographic and clinical differences between the groups. Limitations Adverse childhood life events were assessed in adulthood and therefore may be subject to recall errors. Conclusions We found no evidence for an association between adverse childhood life events and the occurrence of postpartum psychosis. Our data suggest that, unlike postpartum depression, childhood adversity does not play a significant role in the triggering of postpartum psychosis in women with bipolar disorder

    Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Lung Carcinoids with Aggressive Behaviour: One More Arrow in Our Quiver?

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    Lung carcinoids are well-differentiated and low-/intermediate-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung. Given their relative rarity, and the paucity of data available from prospective studies, no global consensus exists on the systemic treatment of these tumours. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized cancer management and are under evaluation in patients with diverse types of neuroendocrine neoplasms. The aim of this narrative review is to analyse all available data for the use of approved immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with lung carcinoids. We performed an extensive search for relevant data sources and found five published articles, one meeting abstract, and nine registered clinical trials indicating a growing interest of researchers in this field, and providing preliminary evidence of efficacy for combined nivolumab plus ipilimumab and durvalumab plus tremelimumab regimens in the treatment of advanced and/or metastatic lung carcinoids

    Quality of Life and psychopathology in adults who underwent Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) in childhood: a qualitative and quantitative analysis.

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    Background: Patients who undergo pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) may experience long-term psychological sequelae and poor Quality of Life (QoL) in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate subjective illness experience, QoL, and psychopathology in young adults who have survived pediatric HSCT. Method: The study involved patients treated with HSCT in the Hematology-Oncology Department between 1984 and 2007. Psychopathology and QoL were investigated using the SCL-90-R and SF-36. Socio-demographic and medical information was also collected. Finally, participants were asked to write a brief composition about their experiences of illness and care. Qualitative analysis of the texts was performed using T-LAB, an instrument for text analysis that allows the user to highlight the occurrences and co-occurrences of lemma. Quantitative analyses were performed using non-parametric tests (Spearman correlations, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests). Results: Twenty-one patients (9 males) participated in the study. No significant distress was found on the SCL-90 Global Severity Index, but it was found on specific scales. On the SF-36, lower scores were reported on scales referring to bodily pain, general health, and physical and social functioning. All the measures were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with specific socio-demographic and medical variables (gender, type of pathology, type of HSCT, time elapsed between communication of the need to transplant and effective transplantation, and days of hospitalization). With regard to the narrative analyses, males focused on expressions related to the body and medical therapies, while females focused on people they met during treatment, family members, and donors. Low general health and treatment with autologous HSCT were associated with memories about chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the body parts involved, while high general health was associated with expressions focused on gratitude (V-Test \ub1 1.96). Conclusion: Pediatric HSCT survivors are more likely to experience psychological distress and low QoL in adulthood compared with the general population. These aspects, along with survivors' subjective illness experience, show differences according to specific medical and socio-demographic variables. Studies are needed in order to improve the care and long-term follow-up of these families

    Entanglement of two blocks of spins in the critical Ising model

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    We compute the entropy of entanglement of two blocks of L spins at a distance d in the ground state of an Ising chain in an external transverse magnetic field. We numerically study the von Neumann entropy for different values of the transverse field. At the critical point we obtain analytical results for blocks of size L=1 and L=2. In the general case, the critical entropy is shown to be additive when d goes to infinity. Finally, based on simple arguments, we derive an expression for the entropy at the critical point as a function of both L and d. This formula is in excellent agreement with numerical results.Comment: published versio

    Adverse Childhood Life Events and Postpartum Mood Episodes in Bipolar Disorder

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    Background: The early postpartum has been established as a period of increased vulnerability for psychiatric mood illness. Women with bipolar disorder (BD) in particular are at elevated risk of postnatal depression (PND) and of postpartum psychosis (PP). Though adverse childhood life events (ACLEs) have been implicated in the aetiology of PND, this has rarely been studied in relation to PP. Furthermore, despite being at high risk of relapse following childbirth, little research has assessed the relationship between ACLEs and postnatal mood episodes (PNEs) exclusively in women with BD. Therefore, our aim was to explore associations between ACLEs and occurrence of both PND and PP in a large sample of women with BD. Methods: Participants were 665 parous women with BD who had been recruited into the Bipolar Disorder Research Network study. Diagnoses and lifetime psychopathology were obtained via a semi-structured interview (SCAN). Postnatal psychiatric history and experience of 7 ACLEs were also assessed. Where available, all information obtained at interview was confirmed from psychiatric case notes. Women were classified into three groups according to postnatal psychiatric history: 1) those who had experienced no postnatal mood episode (no PNE, n=224), 2) women with a history of PND (n=223) and 3) women who had experienced PP (n=208). A Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of each type of ACLE between women in the no PNE group and those with a history of PND or PP. Results: Women with PND were significantly more likely to have experienced emotional, sexual or physical abuse in childhood compared with women who had no history of a PNE (p<0.05). In particular, childhood sexual abuse was reported significantly more in the PND than the no PNE group (P<0.05). In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequency of reporting of any ACLEs between women who had no PNE and those with PP. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that childhood abuse, sexual abuse in particular, is associated with PND among women with BD. In contrast, we found no evidence for an association between any ACLE and PP, suggesting that biological factors are likely to play a more important role in the aetiology of psychosis in the early postpartum

    Agitated Depression in Bipolar Disorder

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    Objectives It has been suggested that agitated depression (AD) is a common, severe feature in bipolar disorder. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of AD and investigate whether presence of AD was associated with episodic and lifetime clinical features in a large well‐characterised bipolar disorder sample. Method The prevalence of agitation, based on semi‐structured interview and medical case‐notes, in the most severe depressive episode was estimated in 2925 individuals with DSM‐IV bipolar disorder recruited into the UK Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Predictors of agitation were ascertained using symptoms within the same episode and lifetime clinical features using multivariate models. Results 32.3% (n=946) experienced agitation during the worst depressive episode. Within the same episode, significant predictors of presence of agitation were: insomnia (OR 2.119, p<.001), poor concentration (OR 1.966, p=.027), decreased libido (OR 1.960, p<.001), suicidal ideation (OR 1.861, p<.001), slowed activity (OR 1.504, p=.001), and poor appetite (OR 1.297, p=.029). Over the lifetime illness course, co‐morbid panic disorder (OR 2.000, p<.001), suicide attempt (OR 1.399, p=.007), and dysphoric mania (OR 1.354, p=.017) were significantly associated with AD. Conclusions Agitation accompanied bipolar depression in at least one‐third of cases in our sample and was associated with concurrent somatic depressive symptoms, which are also common features of mixed manic states. Furthermore, AD in our sample was associated with lifetime experience of mixed mania, in addition to severe lifetime illness course including comorbid panic disorder and suicidal behaviour. Our results have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of agitated features in bipolar depression

    Stratification of the Risk of Bipolar Disorder Recurrences in Pregnancy and Postpartum

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    Background Pregnancy and childbirth are a period of high risk for women with bipolar disorder and involve difficult decisions particularly about continuing or stopping medications. Aims To explore what clinical predictors may help to individualise the risk of perinatal recurrence in women with bipolar disorder. Method Information was gathered retrospectively by semi-structured interview, questionnaires and case-note review from 887 women with bipolar disorder who have had children. Clinical predictors were selected using backwards stepwise logistic regression, conditional permutation random forests and reinforcement learning trees. Results Previous perinatal history of affective psychosis or depression was the most significant predictor of a perinatal recurrence (odds ratio (OR) = 8.5, 95% CI 5.04–14.82 and OR = 3.6, 95% CI 2.55–5.07 respectively) but even parous women with bipolar disorder without a previous perinatal mood episode were at risk following a subsequent pregnancy, with 7% developing postpartum psychosis. Conclusions Previous perinatal history of affective psychosis or depression is the most important predictor of perinatal recurrence in women with bipola