1,313 research outputs found

    Scaling of swimming performance in baleen whales

    Get PDF
    The scale dependence of locomotor factors has long been studied in comparative biomechanics, but remains poorly understood for animals at the upper extremes of body size. Rorqual baleen whales include the largest animals, but we lack basic kinematic data about their movements and behavior below the ocean surface. Here, we combined morphometrics from aerial drone photogrammetry, whale-borne inertial sensing tag data and hydrodynamic modeling to study the locomotion of five rorqual species. We quantified changes in tail oscillatory frequency and cruising speed for individual whales spanning a threefold variation in body length, corresponding to an order of magnitude variation in estimated body mass. Our results showed that oscillatory frequency decreases with body length (proportional to length(-0.5)(3)) while cruising speed remains roughly invariant (proportional to length(0.08)) at 2 m s(-1). We compared these measured results for oscillatory frequency against simplified models of an oscillating cantilever beam (proportional to length(-1)) and an optimized oscillating Strouhal vortex generator (proportional to length(-1)). The difference between our length-scaling exponent and the simplified models suggests that animals are often swimming non-optimally in order to feed or perform other routine behaviors. Cruising speed aligned more closely with an estimate of the optimal speed required to minimize the energetic cost of swimming (proportional to length(-1)). Our results are among the first to elucidate the relationships between both oscillatory frequency and cruising speed and body size for free-swimming animals at the largest scale

    Conceptualising slow tourism: a perspective from Latvia

    Get PDF
    Slow tourism is perceived as a new type of sustainable tourism and a promising alternative to mass tourism with which tourists, destination managers and tourism service providers are willing to engage. However, inconsistent interpretations impede the clarity of communication between tourism suppliers and consumers. This study re-examines the phenomenon of slow tourism to address this gap in the literature. The focus of the study is Latvia where slowness, until recently, was adopted in tourism branding. This qualitative study revealed that slow tourism is an approach to tourism underpinned by a slow mindset which enhances the core experiential aspect of the phenomenon within ethical boundaries. The environmental and economic aspects appear to be marginal and may fluctuate in intensity according to individuals’ perception. This study offers a theoretical perspective alongside some practical implications for slow tourism and enhances industry awareness of the phenomenon, satisfies consumers’ expectations and improves marketing communications

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Get PDF
    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Organic nanofibers embedding stimuli-responsive threaded molecular components

    Full text link
    While most of the studies on molecular machines have been performed in solution, interfacing these supramolecular systems with solid-state nanostructures and materials is very important in view of their utilization in sensing components working by chemical and photonic actuation. Host polymeric materials, and particularly polymer nanofibers, enable the manipulation of the functional molecules constituting molecular machines, and provide a way to induce and control the supramolecular organization. Here, we present electrospun nanocomposites embedding a self-assembling rotaxane-type system that is responsive to both optical (UV-visible light) and chemical (acid/base) stimuli. The system includes a molecular axle comprised of a dibenzylammonium recognition site and two azobenzene end groups, and a dibenzo[24]crown-8 molecular ring. The dethreading and rethreading of the molecular components in nanofibers induced by exposure to base and acid vapors, as well as the photoisomerization of the azobenzene end groups, occur in a similar manner to what observed in solution. Importantly, however, the nanoscale mechanical function following external chemical stimuli induces a measurable variation of the macroscopic mechanical properties of nanofibers aligned in arrays, whose Young's modulus is significantly enhanced upon dethreading of the axles from the rings. These composite nanosystems show therefore great potential for application in chemical sensors, photonic actuators and environmentally responsive materials.Comment: 39 pages, 16 figure

    Search for chargino-neutralino production with mass splittings near the electroweak scale in three-lepton final states in √s=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector