9 research outputs found

### In light of the theory of Special Relativity is a Passage of Time and the argument of the Presentist untenable?

In light of the Special Theory of Relativity and the Minkowski creation of ‘spacetime’, the universe is taken to be a four-dimensional entity which postulates bodies as existing within a temporally extended reality. The Special Theory of Relativity’s implications liken the nature of the universe to a ‘block’ within which all events coexist equally in spacetime. Such a view strikes against the very essence of presentism, which holds that all that exists is the instantaneous state of objects in the present moment. With respect to the present moment, events have a clear division into the past or future, however such regions do not exist in reality and the universe is a three-dimensional entity. The consequences of a four-dimensional universe are disturbing to say the least for our everyday human experience, with once objective facts about reality becoming dependent upon an observer’s relative motion and the debate over the extent of true free will in a Block Universe. This paper will look at arguments which seek to rescue the presentist view in light of Special Relativity so such four-dimensionalist implications do not have to be accepted. Two approaches will be considered. The first accepts that presentism is incompatible with Special Relativity, and seeks to show that the theory is ultimately false. The second holds that it is the Block Universe interpretation of Special Relativity that is wrong, and a version of presentism can be reconciled with Special Relativity. The paper will expound and critically examine both of these approaches to review whether the case for the three-dimensionalist and a fundamental passage of time can be made

### Towards in-orbit hyperspectral imaging of space debris

Satellites are vulnerable to space debris larger than ~1 cm, but much of this debris cannot be tracked from the ground. In-orbit detection and tracking of debris is one solution to this problem. We present some steps towards achieving this, and in particular to use hyperspectral imaging to maximise the information obtained. We present current work related to hyperspectral in-orbit imaging of space debris in three areas: scenario evaluation, a reflectance database, and an image simulator. Example results are presented. Hyperspectral imaging has the potential to provide valuable additional information, such as assessments of spacecraft or debris condition and even spectral “finger-printing” of material types or use (e.g. propellant contamination). These project components are being merged to assess mission opportunities and to develop enhanced data processing methods to improve knowledge and understanding of the orbital environment

### HySim: a tool for space-to-space hyperspectral resolved imagery

This paper introduces HySim, a novel tool addressing the need for hyperspectral space-to-space imaging simulations, vital for in-orbit spacecraft inspection missions. This tool fills the gap by enabling the generation of hyperspectral space-to-space images across various scenarios, including fly-bys, inspections, rendezvous, and proximity operations. HySim combines open-source tools to handle complex scenarios, providing versatile configuration options for imaging scenarios, camera specifications, and material properties. It accurately simulates hyperspectral images of the target scene. This paper outlines HySim's features, validation against real space-borne images, and discusses its potential applications in space missions, emphasising its role in advancing space-to-space inspection and in-orbit servicing planning.UK Defence and Security Accelerator (DASA

### Worldtube excision method for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals: scalar-field model in 3+1 dimensions

Binary black hole simulations become increasingly more computationally
expensive with smaller mass ratios, partly because of the longer evolution
time, and partly because the lengthscale disparity dictates smaller time steps.
The program initiated by Dhesi et al. (arXiv:2109.03531) explores a method for
alleviating the scale disparity in simulations with mass ratios in the
intermediate astrophysical range ($10^{-4} \lesssim q \lesssim 10^{-2}$), where
purely perturbative methods may not be adequate. A region ("worldtube") much
larger than the small black hole is excised from the numerical domain, and
replaced with an analytical model approximating a tidally deformed black hole.
Here we apply this idea to a toy model of a scalar charge in a fixed circular
geodesic orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole, solving for the massless
Klein-Gordon field. This is a first implementation of the worldtube excision
method in full 3+1 dimensions. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of
the method, and discuss the steps towards applying it for evolving orbits and,
ultimately, in the binary black-hole scenario. Our implementation is publicly
accessible in the SpECTRE numerical relativity code.Comment: 19 pages, 10 figure

### Modelling black hole binaries in the intermediate-mass-ratio regime

This work presents a new method for creating gravitational waveform templates for black hole binaries with an intermediate mass-ratio. Intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) are currently an open problem in gravitational-wave source modelling. While black hole perturbation theory can accurately model extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, and numerical relativity has seen much success modelling comparable-mass inspirals, neither approach currently works well on its own for IMRIs. It is not clear how adequate a purely perturbative treatment can be at intermediate mass-ratios of 1:100-1:1000, and at such mass ratios the length-scale disparity remains large enough to pose a serious challenge for numerical relativity.Here we work to provide accurate modelling of such binaries through a synergistic combination of black-hole perturbation and numerical relativity techniques. Our approach matches an approximate analytical solution near the smaller black hole (formed from the tidally perturbed black hole metric) to a fully nonlinear numerical solution in the bulk of the spacetime. This has the effect of relieving some of the scale disparity.This thesis presents the details of this worldtube excision model and goes on to develop and test the architecture using a simple toy model of a scalar charge in orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. We then present results from numerical implementations of such a test setup in 1+1D, as well as in 3+1D. Finally, we detail the model’s infrastructure in the full binary black hole case. The theoretical foundations of the model are erected, which includes the derivation of a suitable approximate analytical solution

### Worldtube excision method for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals: Scalar-field toy model

The computational cost of inspiral and merger simulations for black-hole binaries increases in inverse proportion to the square of the mass ratio q := m2/m1 ≤ 1. One factor of q comes from the number of orbital cycles, which is proportional to 1/q, and another is associated with the required number of time steps per orbit, constrained (via the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy condition) by the need to resolve the two disparate length scales. This problematic scaling makes simulations progressively less tractable at smaller q. Here we propose and explore a method for alleviating the scale disparity in simulations with mass ratios in the intermediate astrophysical range (10−4 . q . 10−2 ), where purely perturbative methods may not be adequate. A region of radius much larger than m2 around the smaller object is excised from the numerical domain, and replaced with an analytical model approximating a tidally deformed black hole. The analytical model involves certain a priori unknown parameters, associated with unknown bits of physics together with gauge-adjustment terms; these are dynamically determined by matching to the numerical solution outside the excision region. In this paper we develop the basic idea and apply it to a toy model of a scalar charge in a circular geodesic orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole, solving for the massless Klein-Gordon field in a 1+1D framework. Our main goal here is to explore the utility and properties of different matching strategies, and to this end we develop two independent implementations, a finite-difference one and a spectral one. We discuss the extension of our method to a full 3D numerical evolution and to gravity

### Worldtube excision method for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals: scalar-field model in 3+1 dimensions

Binary black hole simulations become increasingly more computationally expensive with smaller mass ratios, partly because of the longer evolution time, and partly because the lengthscale disparity dictates smaller time steps. The program initiated by Dhesi et al. [Phys. Rev. D 104, 124002 (2021)] explores a method for alleviating the scale disparity in simulations with mass ratios in the intermediate astrophysical range (10−4≲q≲10−2), where purely perturbative methods may not be adequate. A region (“worldtube”) much larger than the small black hole is excised from the numerical domain, and replaced with an analytical model approximating a tidally deformed black hole. Here we apply this idea to a toy model of a scalar charge in a fixed circular geodesic orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole, solving for the massless Klein-Gordon field. This is a first implementation of the worldtube excision method in full 3+1 dimensions. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, and discuss the steps toward applying it for evolving orbits and, ultimately, in the binary black-hole scenario. Our implementation is publicly accessible in the spectre numerical relativity code

### Waveform Modelling for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

International audienceLISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, will usher in a new era in gravitational-wave astronomy. As the first anticipated space-based gravitational-wave detector, it will expand our view to the millihertz gravitational-wave sky, where a spectacular variety of interesting new sources abound: from millions of ultra-compact binaries in our Galaxy, to mergers of massive black holes at cosmological distances; from the beginnings of inspirals that will venture into the ground-based detectors' view to the death spiral of compact objects into massive black holes, and many sources in between. Central to realising LISA's discovery potential are waveform models, the theoretical and phenomenological predictions of the pattern of gravitational waves that these sources emit. This white paper is presented on behalf of the Waveform Working Group for the LISA Consortium. It provides a review of the current state of waveform models for LISA sources, and describes the significant challenges that must yet be overcome

### Waveform Modelling for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

International audienceLISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, will usher in a new era in gravitational-wave astronomy. As the first anticipated space-based gravitational-wave detector, it will expand our view to the millihertz gravitational-wave sky, where a spectacular variety of interesting new sources abound: from millions of ultra-compact binaries in our Galaxy, to mergers of massive black holes at cosmological distances; from the beginnings of inspirals that will venture into the ground-based detectors' view to the death spiral of compact objects into massive black holes, and many sources in between. Central to realising LISA's discovery potential are waveform models, the theoretical and phenomenological predictions of the pattern of gravitational waves that these sources emit. This white paper is presented on behalf of the Waveform Working Group for the LISA Consortium. It provides a review of the current state of waveform models for LISA sources, and describes the significant challenges that must yet be overcome